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In the United States, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) was passed in
1947 and allowed the U.S. Department of Agriculture to regulate appropriate labeling of
pesticides. Later the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was given responsibility to
ensure that the food supply was safe from pesticides. In 1972, the administration of FIFRA
was transferred to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Subsequent revisions to
FIFRA greatly expanded the testing requirements companies must comply with before
pesticides could be registered for use. Current requirements include acute toxicity testing
of full formulations (including inert ingredients); however, chronic and sub-chronic
testing is required only for the active ingredients. Results of these tests, which are
conducted by manufacturers and submitted to EPA, are used to estimate potential risks to
human health and the environment.

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