Penicillium sp.



ALLERGENICITY

Allergenic (69,71,72,81,95,127,253,254,341,346,458,735,1127,1128)

MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED

Various toxins by different species: Anacine (3,1129), Arisugacins A&B (1142), Auranthine(sclerotigenin) (3,1130), Aurantiamine (3), Belfedrin A (26,1131), Botryodiplodin (3,1132), Brevianamid A (1133), Chaetoglobosin A, B&C (3,1133,1134), Chlororugulovasines A&B (1149) Chrysogine (1135), Citromycetin (3), Citreoisocoumarinol (1136), Citreoviridin (1137), Citrinin (3,235,1133), Communensins A&B (3,1134), Compactin (1138), Curvularin (1136), Cyanein (1139,1140), Cyclochlorotine (1141), Cyclopenin (3,1142,1143), Cyclopenol (3,1143), Cyclopiazonic acid (3,1133), Cytostipin(1144), Expansolides A&B (1134), Isochroman toxins (1136), Isofumigaclavines A&B (3,1145), Festuclavine (1145), Fumitremorgin B (1146), Griseofulvin (3,235,1133), Lumiluteoskyrin (1141), Luteoskyrin (1141), Meleagrin (3,24), 3-Methoxy-viridicatin (24,1143), Mevastatin (421), Mycophenolic acid (3,24,1133), Nalgiolaxin (1135), Nalgiovensin (1135), Normethylverrucosidin (1143), Ochratoxin A(3,194,242,1133), Patulin(3,235,1133,1134), Penicillic acid(3,235,1133), Penicillins (3,1133,1147), Penitrem A (3,1133), Peptide nephrotoxin(3,1148), Pibasterol (1141), PR-toxin (1133,1145), Rubroskyrin (1141), Rugulosin(3,1141), Rugulovasine A&B(3,1149), Roquefortine C&D (3,1133,1145), Rubratoxins (100), S-toxin (1133), Secalonic acids D&F (3,1150), Simatoxin (1141), Skyrin (1141), Synergisidin (1151), Tanzawaic acid E&F (1136), Terrestric acid (3,1133), Territrems B&C (3,1142), TR-2 toxin (1146), Tryptoquivalins(3), Vermiculine(1144), Verrucines A&B (1129), Verrucosidin (3,24,1143), Verrucofortine (24,1143), Verruculogen (1146), Verrucolone(3), Viomellein (3,1133), Vioxanthin(3), Viridicatumtoxin (1133,1150), Xanthomegnin (3,1133), Xanthocillin X (1152). 

PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS 

Bronchopulmonary (1,2,297,1153-1156 ,1158), nail (578,907, 1157), (sub)cutaneous(1,2,1158-1160), ear (1,2,1167) infections, systemic disease (1161-1164), osteomyelitis (1165,1166), endophthalmitis (122), keratitis (1,621,622), esophagitis (1, 1168), pericarditis (1154,1158 ), endocarditis (1,2,1169), mostly in immunocompromised patients.

IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (PDA)

Rapid growth, powdery, green, gray, yellow or white, conidia one-celled, in chains, spherical, ellipsoidal or short-cylindrical, smooth-walled.

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