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The purpose of this section is to acknowledge the pioneers and progenitors of the field of toxicology and allied sciences. Because the concept of toxicology is traced to antiquity these primarily biographical snapshots offer insight into the personalities, controversies, and proposed, debated, and accepted theories of the profession.

Albert, Roy

Lippmann M. 2003. Scientific contributions of Roy Ernest Albert (1924-2002), a pioneer in radiation risk assessment and its application to public policy. Radiation Research. 160:124-9.

Baetjer, Anna

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. 2011. Historical snapshot: Dr. Anna Baetjer, industrial hygiene pioneer, military occupational health advocate. MSMR. 18(12):14.

Barnes, John

Witschi H.P. 2002. John Morrison Barnes, 1913-1975. Toxicological Sciences. 68:267-269.


Barron, Charlie

Anonymous. 1976. In memoriam: Charlie N. Barron, 1922-1977. Toxicologic Pathology. 4(4):8.


Begg, Shelia

Foster J.R. 2010. Obituary: Shelia Begg. Toxicologic Pathology. 38(5):829.

Bernard, Claude

Griffin J.P. 1993. Famous names in toxicology: Claude Bernard 1813-1878. Adverse Drug Reactions: Toxicological Reviews. 12:213-214.

Blood, Frank

Hayes W.J. Jr. 1972. Frank Raymond Blood (September 13, 1910-January 31, 1971). Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 21(4):591-2.

Boyd, Eldon

Coldwell B.B. 1974. Eldon M. Boyd (September 1, 1907-February 13, 1973). Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 28(2):332-4.

Bucherl, Wolfgang

Lucas S. 1998. Wolfgang Bucherl, early toxicologist. Toxicon. 36:2047-2051.


Busey, William M.

Hardisty J.F. 2012. Obituary: William M. Busey. Toxicologic Pathology. 40(3):552-553.


Capen, Charles

Anonymous. 2008. Obituary: Dr. Charles Capen. Toxicologic Pathology. 36(3):373.


Carlton, William W.

Long G.G. 1989. William W. Carlton, D.V.M, Ph.D., honorary member of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology. Toxicologic Pathology. 17(2):457.

Casarett, Louis

Hodge H.C. 1974. Louis J. Casarett (March 23, 1927-November 10, 1972). Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 28(2):329-31.

Morrow P.E. 2001. Louis James Casarett (1927-1972). Toxicological Sciences. 63:151-2.

Cuomo, Vincenzo

Carratù M.R. 2002. International Profiles in Toxicology: Biography of Vincenzo Cuomo, MD, Ph. D. International Journal of Toxicology. 21(1):1-2.

Christian, Mildred

Anonymous. 2005. Lifetime achievement award, Mildred S. Christian. International Journal of Toxicology. 24:1-2.

Clarkson, Thomas

Anonymous. 1993. 1993 Arnold J. Lehman award, Thomas W. Clarkson. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 122:317-8.

Cook, Warren

Anonymous. 1992. Warren A. Cook, an industrial hygiene pioneer. 1900-1992. AIHA Journal. 53:A-292-4.

Dearborn, Earl

Friess S.L. 1973. Earl H. Dearborn (June 10, 1915-March 1, 1973). Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 25(3):437-8.


Dover, Thomas

Griffin J.P. 1994. Famous names in toxicology: Doctor Quicksilver, alias Thomas Dover. Adverse Drug Reactions: Toxicological Reviews. 13:119-120.

Drinker, Philip

Sherwood R.J. 1973. Philip Drinker, 1894-1972. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 16(1):93-94.

DuBois, Kenneth

Kinoshita F.K. 1973. Kenneth Patrick DuBois (August 9, 1917-January 24, 1973). Toxicological Applied Pharmacology. 25(3):435-6.

Doull, John

Anonymous. 1993. 1993 merit award, John Doull. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology.  122:323-4.

Eaton, David

Anonymous. 1993. 1993 achievement award, David L. Eaton. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology.  122:325.

Ekwall, Björn

Anonymous. 2007. Remember of a pioneer in the field of in vitro toxicology. ALTEX. 12(2):179-181.

Kolman A. 2010. [Björn Ekwall and his contribution to modern cell toxicology]. Tsitologiia. 52(10):888-90. Russian.

Kolman A. and Walum E. 2010. Björn Ekwall, an outstanding Swedish cell toxicologist. Toxicology in Vitro. 24(8):2060-2.

Ellenhorn, Matthew

Banner W. 1996. Some thoughts about Matthew Ellenhorn, MD 1923-1996. Clinical Toxicology. 34(3):v-vi.


Faccini, John

Abbott D. 1998. In memoriam: John Faccini, Ph.D. Toxicologic Pathology. 26(6):832-833.


Farber, Emmanuel

de la Iglesia F.A. 1985. Emmanuel Farber, M.D., Ph.D.—honorary member of the Society of Toxicologic Pathologists. Toxicologic Pathology. 13(3):175-176.

Fontana, Abbé Felice

Hawgood B.J. 1995. Abbé Felice Fontana (1730-1805): founder of modern toxinology. Toxicon. 33(5):591-601.

Forti, Giorgio

Hrelia P. 2002. International profiles in toxicology: Biography of Giorgio Cantelli Forti. International Journal of Toxicology. 21(6):439-440.

White R.F. 2005. Occupational and environmental neurology: a pioneer. In memoriam: Robert G. Feldman, M.D., 1933-2003. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 47:101-3.

Furst, Arthur

Christian M.S. 2002. ACT lifetime contribution award, 2001. Dr. Arthur Furst—awardee. International Journal of Toxicology. 21:3-4.

Garrick, B. John

Greenberg M.R. and Lowrie K. 2009. B. John Garrick, nuclear risk assessment pioneer. Risk Analysis. 29(7):935-9.

Gehring, Perry

LeBeau J. 2004. Perry J. Gehring DVM, PhD (March 15, 1936–November 6, 2003). Toxicological Sciences. 77(1):1-2.

Giglio, Jose Robert

Soares A.M. 2014. In memoriam: Prof. Dr. José Roberto Giglio and his contributions to Toxinology. Toxicon. 89:91-3.

Golberg, Leon

McClellan R.O. 2003. The legacy of Leon Golberg (1915-1987). Toxicological Sciences. 72:188-192.


Grasso, Paul

Foster J.R. 2010. Obituary: Paul Grasso. Toxicologic Pathology. 38(5):830-831.

Guengerich, F. Peter

Anonymous. 2005. Distinguished service award, F. Peter Guengerich. International Journal of Toxicology. 24:3-4.

Haber, Fritz

Witschi H.P. 2000. Fritz Haber: December 9, 1868-January 29, 1934. Toxicology. 149:3-15.

Hamilton, Alice

Amster L.J. 1986. Gentlewoman explorer in the dangerous trades (Alice Hamilton). Hospital Practice. 21:206, 209, 212-3

Beatty W.K. 1979. Alice Hamilton: pioneer in industrial medicine. Proceedings of the Institute of Medicine of Chicago. 32:120.

Bendiner E. 1995. Alice Hamilton's war on occupational disease. Hospital Practices. 30:80-8.

Cook W.A. 1988. An impression of Alice Hamilton--physician, industrial hygienist, crusader and friend. AIHA Journal. 49:A306-10.

Corn J.K.1976. Alice Hamilton, M.D., and women's welfare. NEJM. 294:316-8.

Elia J.J.  1970. Alice Hamilton--1869-1970. NEJM. 283:993-4.

Fee E. and Brown T.M. 2001. Alice Hamilton: settlement physician, occupational health pioneer. AJPH. 91:1767.

Felton J.S. 1972.  Alice Hamilton, M.D.-a century of devotion to humanity. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 14:106-10.

Johnstone R.T. 1972. One of America's great physicians (Alice Hamilton). Journal of Occupational Medicine. 14:105.

Kyle R.A. and Shampo M.A. 1997. Alice Hamilton--pioneer in industrial medicine. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 72:726.

Moye W.T. 1986. BLS and Alice Hamilton: pioneers in industrial health. Monthly Labor Review.

Reznikoff P. 1972. The grandmother of industrial medicine (Alice Hamilton). Journal of Occupational Medicine 14:111.

Salerno D.F. and Feitshans I.L 2003. Alice Hamilton, MD: gaining visibility for industrial medicine. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 57:791.

Taylor W. 1991. A life of devotion to industrial health: a tribute to one of America's great physicians--Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970). Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians Edinb. 1991 21:215-20.

Warren J.V. 1987. Alice Hamilton, M.D. (1869-1970). Journal of Laboratory & Clinical Medicine. 109:733-4.

Herapath, William

Campbell W.A. 1980. William Herapath, 1796-1868: a pioneer of toxicology. Analytical Proceedings. 17:346-348.

Hodge, Harold Carpenter

Morrow P.E. 2000. Profiles in toxicology: Harold Carpenter Hodge (1904-1990). Toxicological Sciences. 53:157-8.

Hollander, Carel

Boorman G.A. 2003. Tribute to Dr. Carel Hollander. Toxicologic Pathology. 31(2):208.


Hueper, Withelm C.H.

Stewart H.L. 1974. Withelm Carl Heinrich Hueper, M.D. Toxicologic Pathology. 2(1):9-11.

Hunt, Vilma

Salerno D.F. and Feitshans I.L. 2004. Influential women in occupational health. Vilma R. Hunt—nuclear expert, science educator. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 58:96.


Innes, James

Stanton M.F. 1974. James Robert Maitland Innes D. Sc., Ph.D., MRCVS, Sc.D. (Contab), F.R.C. Path. Toxicologic Pathology. 2(2): 15-19.

Anonymous. 1974. In memoriam: James Robert Maitland Innes. Toxicologic Pathology. 2(4):3.


Ito, Nobuyuki

Cohen S.M., et al. 2011. Obituary: Nobuyuki Ito, M.D., Ph.D. Toxicologic Pathology. 39(5):905-906.


Jones, Sidney R.

Nold J. 1998. In memorium: Sidney R. Jones, D.V.M., Ph.D. Toxicologic Pathology. 26(5):711.


Kaye, Sidney

Dubowski K. 1985. Sidney Kaye, Ph.D., internationally renowned forensic toxicologist. American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology.  6:167-69.

Kennaway, Ernest

Griffin J.P. 1994. Famous names in toxicology: Sir Ernest Kennaway. Adverse Drug Reactions: Toxicological Reviews. 13:175-176.

Klaassen, Curtis

Anonymous. 2002. Distinguished service award, Dr. Curtis D. Klaassen. International Journal of Toxicology. 21:5.

Anonymous. 1993. Education award, Curtis E. Klaassen. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology.  122:321.

Kobert, Rudolf

Buess H. 1954. [Rudolf Kobert (1854-1918): a pioneer of pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacohistory and public health] Schweiz Med Wochenschr 84(16): 448-50. German.

Kurlyandskiy, Boris

Khamidoulina K.K. 2003. International profiles in toxicology: biography of Boris Kurlyandskiy. International Journal of Toxicology. 22(3):147-148.

Kurokawa, Yuji

Inoue T. 2001. International Profiles in Toxicology: Biography of Dr. Yuji Kurokawa. International Journal of Toxicology. 20(3):111.

Lane-Claypn, Janet E.

Winkelstein W. 2004. Vignettes of the history of epidemiology: three firsts by Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypn. American Journal of Epidemiology. 160:97-101.

Legge, Thomas

Harrington J.J. 1999. 1998 and beyond—Legge’s legacy to modern occupational health. Annual Review of Occupational Hygiene. 43:1-6.

Waldron T. 2004. Thomas Morrison Legge (1863-1932): the first medical factory inspector. Journal of Medical Biography. 12:202-9.

Lehman, Arnold

Oser B.L. 1968. Arnold J. Lehman. Food & Cosmetic Toxicology. 6:119-20.

Stirling D.A. and Junod S. 2002. Profiles in toxicology: Arnold J. Lehman. Toxicological Sciences. 70:159-160.

Lewin, Louis

Macht D.I. 1931. Louis Lewin: pharmacologist, toxicologist, medical historian. Annals of Medical History. 3:179-194.

Link, Karl Paul

Last J.A. 2002. Profiles in toxicology: The Missing Link—the story of Karl Paul Link. Toxicological Sciences. 66:4-6.

Mably, Thomas

Anonymous. 1993 Frank R. Blood award, Thomas A. Mably. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology.  122: 322.

Maimonides, Moses

Furst A. 2001. Profiles in Toxicology: Moses Maimonides. Toxicological Sciences. 59:196-197.

Matthew, Henry

Proudfoot A.T. and Prescott L.F. 2009. Henry Matthew: the father of modern clinical toxicology. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians Edinb. 39(4):357-361.

Mers, G.G.

Ascher K.R. 1962. G.G. Mer’s contribution to insect toxicology. Riv Malariol. 41:235-42.


Metcalf, Robert Lee

Hummel H.E. and Lampman R.L. 2003. Homage to Robert Lee Metcalf (1916-1998): entomologist, environmental toxicologist, and insect chemical ecologist. Communications in Agriculture & Applied Biological Sciences. 68(4 Pt A):29-44.


Mitchell, Silas Weir

Hawgood B.J. 2000. Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914): toxicologist, neurologist and novelist. Journal of Medical Biography. 8(2):63-70.


Griffin J.P. 1995. Famous names in toxicology: Mithridates VI of Pontus, the first experimental toxicologist. Adverse Drug Reactions: Toxicological Reviews. 14:1-6.

Valle G., et al. 2009. Mithridates VI Eupator, father of the empirical toxicology. Clinical Toxicology. 47(5):433-433.

Morton, Daniel

Sellers R.S. and Harris R. 2015. In memoriam: Daniel Morton. Toxicologic Pathology. 43(8):1045-1046.


Murphy, Sheldon

Eaton D.L. and Costa L.G. 2000. Profiles in toxicology: Sheldon D. Murphy. Toxicological Sciences. 57:191-192.

Murrell, William

Anonymous. 1969. William Murrell (1853-1912), clinical pharmacologist and toxicologist. JAMA. 209(9):1361.


Nafstad, Inger

Dybing E. 2001. International Profiles in Toxicology: Biography of Inger Nafstad, DVM, Ph. D. International Journal of Toxicology. 20(6):337-337.


Nelson, Norton

Lippman M. 2001. Profiles in Toxicology: Norton Nelson. Toxicological Sciences. 64:149-150.


Neubert, Diether

Chahoud I. and Paumgartten F.J. 2010. An appreciation of Diether Neubert and Hans-Joachim Merker’s contributions to reproductive and developmental toxicology on their 80th birthday. Reproductive Toxicology. 29(3):257-61.


Newberne, Paul M.

de la Iglesia F.A. 1988. Paul M. Newberne, D.V.M, Ph.D., honorary member of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology. toxicologic Pathology. 16(2):307-308

Odum, E.P.

Ludwig D.F. 2003. On the shoulders of giants: remembering E.P. Odum. Nonlinearity in Biology, Toxicology & Medicine. 1(2):145-147.


Orfila, Mateo

De Sosa C.A. 1992. Famous names in toxicology: Mateo Orfila (1787-1853). Adverse Drug Reactions: Toxicological Reviews. 11:69-70.



Borzelleca J.F. 2000. Paracelsus: herald of modern toxicology. Toxicological Sciences. 53:2-4.

Guggenheim K.Y. 1993. Paracelsus and the science of nutrition in the renaissance. On occasion of the 500th anniversary of his birth. Journal of Nutrition. 123:1189-94.

Lorimer J. 2008. The father of toxicology? Chemistry International. 30(2):3.

Mann R.D. 1993. Famous names in toxicology: Paracelsus—born 500 years ago. Adverse Drug Reactions: Toxicological Reviews. 12:81-82.

Rozman K.K. and Doull J. 2001. Paracelsus, Haber and Arndt. Toxicology. 7:191-196.

Siddiqui M.A. 2003. Paracelsus: The Hippocrates of the renaissance. Journal of Medical Biography. 11:78-80.


Peacock, Thomas

Greenberg M. 1992. Historical perspectives in occupational medicine. Thomas Bevill Peacock, MB, FRCP, pioneer occupational and environmental physician. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 21(3):443-447.


Plaa G.L.

Klaassen C. 2010. In memorium: Gabriel L. Plaa. Toxicological Sciences. 113(2):279-280.


Plechter, John

Brennecke L.H. 2013. Obituary: John M. Plecther, D.V.M., M.P.H. Diplomate ACVP. Toxicologic Pathology. 41(8):1174-1175.


Ramazzini, Bernardino

Felton J.S. 1997. The heritage of Bernardino Ramazzini. Occupational Medicine 47(3):167-179.


Roe, Francis

Howarth P. 2007. Obituary: Francis Roe. Toxicologic Pathology. 35(7):851-852.


Rotger, Mateu Orfila i

Bertomeu J.R. 2004. Mateu Orfila i Rotger (1787-1853): science, medicine and crime in the nineteenth century. Contributions to Science. 2(4):565-578.


Roubal, Jan

Bardoděj Z. 2004. Biography of Professor Jan Roubal, MD, PhD 100 Years from the birth of the Czech Industrial Toxicologist. International Journal of Toxicology. 23(1):1-2.

Rowe, V.K.

Kociba R.J. 2004. Profiles in toxicology: V.K. Rowe (1914-2004). Toxicological Sciences. 79:209-210.


Rusiecki, Władysław

Magowska A. 2005. Władysław Rusiecki (1907–1991)—One of the most versatile minds among Polish toxicologists. Acta Toxicologica. 13(2):123-127.

Saunders, Paul

Anonymous. 1975. In memoriam, Paul R. Saunders. Toxicon. 13:305.


Schulz, Hugo

Calabrese E.J. 2003. Remembering Hugo Schulz. Nonlinearity in Biol, Toxicology & Medicine. 1(3):293.


Shupe, J.L.

Alden C.L. 1991. James L. Shupe, D.V.M., honorary member of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology. Toxicologic Pathology. 19(3):301-302.


Southcott, Ronald V.

Acton C., et al. 1999. The life and contributions to toxinology of Dr. Ronald Vernon Southcott. Australian Dental Journal. 44(1):20-24.


Sterner, James

Ashenburg N.J., et al. 2002. Profiles in toxicology: James Hervi Sterner, 1904-1992. Toxicological Sciences. 65:4-6.


Stokinger, Herbert

Wagner W.D. 2001. Herbert E. Stokinger, “Mr. TLV.” Toxicological Sciences. 61(1):4-5.


Taylor, Alfred

Coley N.G. 1991. Alfred Swine Taylor, MD, FRS (1806-1880): forensic toxicologist. Medical History. 35:409-427.

Rosenfeld L. 1985. Alfred Swine Taylor (1806-1880), pioneer toxicologist—and a slight case of murder. Clinical Chemistry. 31:1235-6.


Thackrah, Charles Turner

Brown J.W. 1950. The contribution of Charles Turner Thackrah, English pioneer in the field of industrial health. AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene & Occupational Medicine. 2(5):517-28.


Thompson, Samuel Wesley

Williams B. 2014. Obituary: Samuel Wesley (“Sam”) Thompson II (1925-2014). Toxicologic Pathology. 42(5):797-798.


Trasko, Victoria

Costa C.A. 1992. Victoria M. Trasko: champion of state-based surveillance of occupational diseases in the U.S., 1937-1971. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 22:419-28.


Trump, Benjamin

Klaunig J.E.2008. obituary: Dr. Benjamin Franklin Trump. Toxicologic Pathology. 36(5):649-650.


Tutelyan, Victor

Kurlyandski B.A. 2003. Biography of Victor Aleksandrovich Tutelyan. International Journal of Toxicology. 22(1):1-2.


Van Ryzin, Robert J.

Iverson W.O. 1993. Tribute: Robert J. Van Ryzin, D.V.M. 1929-1993. Toxicologic Pathology. 21(6):659.

Vladimirovich, Sanotskiy

Sidorov K.K. 2003. Biography of Sanotskiy Igor Vladimirovich. International Journal of Toxicology. 22(6):413-414.


von Pettenkofer, Max

Locher W.G. 2007. Max von Pettenkofer (1818-1901) as a pioneer in modern hygiene and preventive medicine. Environmental Health & Preventive Medicine. 12(6):238-245.


Vorwald, Arthur

Reeves A.L. 2002. Profiles in toxicology: Arthur John Vorwald, 1904-1974. Toxicological Sciences. 65:164-165.


Vrhovac, Bozidar

Francetic I. and Orme M. 2010. Professor Bozidar Darko Vrhovac (1936-2009). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. 106(4):269-271.


Warkany, Josef

Brent R.L. 1982. Biography of Josef Warkany. Teratology. 25:137-51.


Watanabe, Philip

Stott W. and Bus J. 2005. Profiles in toxicology: Philip G. Watanabe. Toxicological Sciences. 84:211.


Watin, Jean

Piper R. 1973. Jean Felix Watin. Industrial hygiene pioneer. Journal of Social & Occupational Medicine. 23:96-98.


Watkinson, William

Costa D.L. 2007. A Tribute to Dr. William Penn Watkinson. Inhalation Toxicology. 19(5):381-382.


Weisse, Ingo

Frese K., et al. 1997. In memoriam: D.V.M. Ingo Weisse. Toxicologic Pathology. 25(6):653.


Widmark, Erik

Andréasson R. and Jones A.W. 1995. Erik MP Widmark (1889–1945): Swedish pioneer in forensic alcohol toxicology. Forensic Sciences International. 72(1):1-14.

Wiley, Harvey

Goyan J.E. 1981. Dr. Harvey Wiley’s brainchild, 75 years later (banquet address). Journal of the Association of Analytical Chemistry. 64:256-259.

Janssen W.F. 1981. The squad that ate poison. FDA Consumer. 6-11.

Link J. and Kidwell B. 2000. Harvey Wiley: the chemist who led the food safety crusade. Progressive Farmer. 115:26, 30.

Stirling D.A. 2002. Profiles in toxicology: Harvey W. Wiley. Toxicological Sciences. 67:157-158.

Stutzman R.H. 1981. Harvey Washington Wiley: a famous Hoosier and the father of pure food. Indiana Medical History Quarterly. 7:20-21.


Williams, Richard

Jones A.W. 2009. Richard Tecwyn Williams (1909-1979): An appreciation. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 33:623-625.


Wilson, James G.

Brent R.L. 1989. In memoriam: James G. Wilson (1915-1987). Teratology. 39:317-9.


Zbinden, Gerhard

Hedinger Ch., et al. 1993. Tribute: Gerhard Zbinden, M.D. 1924-1993. Toxicologic Pathology. 21(6):660-661.

Waser P.G. 1995. In memory of Gerhard Zbinden (1924-1993), toxicologist. Toxicology. 96:167-171.

Witschi H. 2000. Profiles in toxicology: Gerhard Zbinden, 1924-1993. Toxicological Sciences. 56:253-254.

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