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The purpose of this section is to highlight the ethical and legal issues that confront toxicology and allied sciences. Reading about ethical and legal issues provides context to the development and practice of toxicology and related sciences.


Boekelheide K. 1998. Toxicologists: have we been honest with the public? Toxicological Sciences. 46(2):418.

Bour H, von Kreybig T. 1970. [Toxicology and ethics]. Med Klin. 65(15):951-7. German.

Bronstein D.A. 1986. Some ethical issues in toxicology. Fundamental & Applied Toxicology. 7(4):525-530.

Claxton L.D. 2007. A review of conflict of interest, competing interest and bias for toxicologists. Toxicology & Industrial Health. 23(10):557-71.

Davis D.L. 2008. What the history of epidemiology and toxicology teaches us about ethics. Epidemiology. 19(6):S27-S28.

Fortun K. and Fortun M. 2005. Scientific imaginaries and ethical plateaus in contemporary US toxicology. American Anthropologist. 107(1):43-54.

Gilbert S.G. 2005. Ethical, legal, and social issues: our children’s future. Neurotoxicology. 26:521–530.

Golberg L. 1982. A code of ethics for scientists reporting and reviewing information on chemicals. Fundamental & Applied Toxicology. 2(6):289-292.

Mertz C.K., et al. 1998. Judgments of chemical risks: comparisons among senior managers, toxicologists, and the public. Risk Analysis. 18(4):391-404.

Miya T.S. 1991. Concerns in toxicology—A personal perspective. Fundamental & Applied Toxicology. 16(4):619-621.

Nigg H.N. and Radulescu G. 1994. Scientific misconduct in environmental science and toxicology. JAMA. 272(2):168-70.

Purchase I.F. 2002. Ethical issues for bioscientists in the new millennium. Toxicology Letters. 127(1):307-313.

Saady J.J. 2001. Ethics for toxicologists: an examination of conscience. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 25:390–392.

Sagi M. 1999. [Isn't there a gap between ideal and real actions in legal toxicology?]. Nihon Hoigaku Zasshi. 53(3):306-12. Japanese.

Scala R.A. 1978. The duty to report hazards: a toxicologist's view. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 54(8):774.

Schwetz B.A., et al. 2005. Toxicological research involving humans: ethical and regulatory considerations. Toxicological Sciences. 85(1):419-421.

Scialli A.R. 1989. Sexism in toxicology. Repro Toxicol 3(4): 219-220.

Shrader-Frechette K. 2008. Ideological toxicology: invalid logic, science, ethics about low-dose pollution. Human & Experimental Toxicology. 27(8):647-57.

Teijeira R. 2003. [Legal aspects of toxicological care]. An Sist Sanit Navar. 26(S1):275-80. Spanish.

Udayashankar Y. 2015. Medical ethics: review of literature. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. 9(1):37-41.

Wandall B., et al. 2007. Bias in toxicology. Archives of Toxicology. 81(9):605-617.

Webster J., et al. 2010. Ethical implications of using the minipig in regulatory toxicology studies. Journal of Pharmacological & Toxicological Methods. 62(3):160-166.

Zbinden G. 1985. Ethical considerations in toxicology. Food & Chemical Toxicology. 23(2):137-138. 

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