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Propiconazole

Lead Editor

Overview



Propiconazole is a fungicide and antimicrobial that was first registered in 1981, used to protect grass grown for seed. The EPA expanded its tolerances to include several food crops in 1987, and again in 1993 and 1994 (#EPA). It is also used to protect ornamental plants and as a preventative ingredient on industrial products.
Propiconazole may be sold under names including Tilt, Alamo, Banner, Orbit, and Quilt (#EPA).

Chemical Description


Propiconazole is in the triazole class of fungicides. Commercially, propiconazole is available as an emulsifiable concentrate, flowable concentrate, ready-to-use liquid, liquid soluble concentrate, wettable powder, and dust (#EPA).

Uses


Propiconazole targets fungi, bacteria, and viruses affecting plants (#EPA).

Propiconazole is used to protect ornamental plants and turf, including golf courses and sod farms. It may be used as a preservative to wood, adhesives, paints, coatings, leather, paper, textiles, and other industrial products (#EPA).

Propiconazole is registered for use on a variety of food crops, most notably banana, nuts, barley, corn, stone fruits, wheat, cereal grains, citrus, oats, rice, rye, sugarcane, and wheat. Nuts, rice, and wheat account for the heaviest usage (#EPA).

Human Health Effects


Propiconazole has a moderately low acute toxicity. The acute oral LD50 for rats is 1517 mg/kg. When exposed to the eyes, popiconazole caused corneal opacity which reversed within 72 hours (#EPA).

Chronic toxicity tests on rats and mice found benign and malignant liver tumors to occur in males at doses as low as 3.6 mg/kg daily (#EC). The EPA has categorized propiconazole as a possible human carcinogen (#EPA).

In a reproductive toxicity test with rats, doses as low as 30 mg/kg caused skeletal deformations in newborn pups. Reduced litter size and pup weight were observed at the 8mg/kg dose level (#EC). Propiconazole is a developmental toxin on the Toxics Release Inventory (#PANNA).

The body absorbs 86% of a propiconazole dose in 48 hours. Excretion occurs at 95% in 48 hours (#EC).

Environmental Health Effects


Propiconazole interferes with the synthesis of ergosterol, an organic molecule vital to the formation of fungal cell walls. This slows or stops growth (#EPA).

Propiconazole breaks down into other triazole compounds. These are not believed to be carcinogenic, but should still be treated with equal precaution (#EPA).

Propiconazole can be slightly to highly toxic to fish. The acute LC50 is 850 ppb for rainbow trout, and 4800 ppb for Daphnia magna (#EPA). It has a relatively low toxicity to birds. The acute LD50 for mallard exceeds 2510 mg/kg. Propiconazole also has a low toxicity to bees, with an LD50 exceeding 100 ug/bee (#EC).

Propicanizole is slightly to moderately mobile in soil. It is more mobile in soils with less organic matter, and has some potential to contaminate water (#EPA).

Regulation


Propiconazole is a General Use Pesticide.

Precautionary Notes


Propiconazole can contaminate water and may be highly toxic to fish. Exercise extreme caution if using near water sources. Propiconazole degrades into triazole compounds, which may still be toxic. Decomposition of propiconazole by heating may release toxic gasses (#MSDS).

Integrated Pest Management


Integrated pest management (IPM) is an approach to pest management that can significantly reduce pesticide use. Widely used in agriculture, landscape maintenance, and structural pest control, it emphasizes prevention and monitoring of pest problems and considers pesticide applications only when nonchemical controls are ineffective or impractical. To learn more about IPM, see Toxipedia's sister site IPMopedia, which includes information on control of fungal diseases.

 


References



Environmental Protection Agency. Reregistration Eligibility Decision: Propiconazole. (July 2006). http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/propiconazole_red.pdf [Accessed 9-16-10].


European Commission: Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General. Propiconazole. (April 2003). http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/protection/evaluation/existactive/list1-51_en.pdf [Accessed 9-16-10].


Farmsaver.com. Material Safety Data Sheet: PrimeraOne Propiconazole 14.3. http://www.primeraturf.coop/Quali_Pro_11_19_07/msds_primeraone_propiconazole_14_3_issued_10_31_07.pdf [Accessed 9-16-10].


Pesticide Action Network North America. Propiconazole. http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34271 [Accessed 9-16-10].

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