Mustard Gas

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Mustard Gas - Poster


  • Mustard Gas poster (3 mgb) by Matthew J. Geraci, PharmD, EOD and Mahdi Balali-Mood, MD, PhD

Overview


The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. In their pure form most sulfur mustards are colorless, odorless, viscous liquids at room temperature. When used as warfare agents they are usually yellow-brown in color and have an odor resembling mustard plants, garlic or horseradish, which is how they got their name. However, these compounds have absolutely no relation whatsoever to culinary mustard.

Sulfur mustards are variations of mustard gas (bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide), which was first synthesized by Frederick Guthrie in 1860, though it is possible that it was developed as early as 1822 by M. Depretz. In 1886 V. Meyer published a paper describing a synthesis which produced good yields. Mustard gas is referred to by numerous other names, including HD, senfgas, sulfur mustard, blister gas, s-lost, lost, Kampfstoff LOST, yellow cross liquid, and yperite. The abbreviation LOST comes from the names Lommel and Steinkopf, who developed a process for mass producing the gas for war use at the German company Bayer AG. This involved reacting thiodiglycol with hydrochloric acid.

Mustard agents, including sulfur mustard, are regulated under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Three classes of chemicals are monitored under this convention, with sulfur and Nitrogen mustard grouped in the highest risk class, "schedule 1".

Physical Properties


At room temperature, phosgene is a a white or pale yellow gas with, at low concentrations, the odor of newly cut hay or corn. It is, by itself, nonflammable (#CDC). It four times denser than air

Phosgene is also known as carbonyl chloride (COCL2). It is formed when chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are exposed to high temperatures.

Mode of Action


See the Pathophysiology section of #Gray, 2006.

Uses


Phosgene still is used to create numerous products including plastics, pharmaceutical agents, polyurethanes, dyes, and Pesticides. Industries in the United States alone use over 1 billion pounds of phosgene yearly (#Gray, 2006).

It has also been used extensively as a chemical weapon most notably in World War I.

History


Phosgene was first used as a Chemical Weapons in World War I by the Germans, but was later used by the French, Americans, and British in that same conflict (#Gray, 2006). Initial deployment of the gas was by the Germans at Ypres Salient on December 19, 1915 when they released around 4000 cylinders of phosgene combined with Chlorine against the British. Phosgene has rarely been used since World War I, partly because most countries frowned upon the use of chemical weapons and partly because newer agents were developed (#Gray, 2006). Phosgene was responsible for the majority of deaths that result from chemical warfare (#CDC).

Signs and Symptoms of Poisoning


From #CDC:
During or immediately after exposure to dangerous concentrations of phosgene, the following signs and symptoms may develop:

  • Coughing
  • Burning sensation in the throat and eyes
  • Watery eyes
  • Blurred vision
  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Nausea and vomiting
    *Skin contact can result in lesions similar to those from frostbite or burns

    Following exposure to high concentrations of phosgene, a person may develop fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) within 2 to 6 hours. Exposure to phosgene may cause delayed effects that may not be apparent for up to 48 hours after exposure, even if the person feels better or appears well following removal from exposure. Therefore, people who have been exposed to phosgene should be monitored for 48 hours afterward. Delayed effects that can appear for up to 48 hours include the following:
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Coughing up white to pink-tinged fluid (a sign of pulmonary edema)
  • Low blood pressure
  • Heart failure
  • Showing these signs or symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to phosgene.

Current Events


 

Precaution


First, in case of phosgene exposure, one should leave the area of the phosgene release as wuickly as possible. Remove clothing and wash entire body with soap or water and get to a medical care facility as quickly as possible.

Exposed clothing should be removed keeping it away from the head (cut off shirts if necessary rather than pull them off over the head) and should be sealed in a plastic bag if possible (#CDC). If one has ingested phosgene, do not induce vomiting or drink any fluids.

Treatment for phosgene centers around removing the phosgene from the body as quickly as possible because no antidote exists for phosgene.

Regulation


 

Controversy and Opinion


 

Teaching Resources



References



CDC on Phosgene.


Scorecard on Phosgene.


Gray, Elizabeth and John W. Love. "CBRNE - Lung-Damaging Agents, Phosgene". Retreived on 1-14-07.


Tucker, Johnathon B. War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda. Pantheon Books, 2006.


Hutchinson, Robert. Weapons of mass Destruction: The No-nonsense Guide to Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Weapons Today. Widenfield and nicholson, 2003.


Smart, Jeffery K., M.A. (1997). "History of Biological and Chemical Warfare". Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Retrieved Jan. 5, 2006 from Center for Diaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine (CDHAM).


Emedicine.com. Retreived Jan. 5, 2004.

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