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Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12, atomic weight 24.3050 and common oxidation number +2.

Magnesium, an alkaline earth metal, is the ninth most abundant element in the universe by mass. The commonness of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from a single reaction between three helium nuclei at once). Magnesium constitutes about 2% of the Earth's crust by mass, which makes it the eighth most abundant element in the crust. Magnesium ion's high solubility in water helps ensure that it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater.