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The following citations pertain to the “meat and potatoes” of the toxicology and allied science professions. These are the information resources that are consulted on a daily basis as professionals in the field go about their business. They are used every day of the year in the pursuit of drug development, environmental and human health risk assessment, toxic tort litigation, and so forth. Some of the cited resources no longer exist, some were incorporated into larger systems, while others have been used for decades. 

General Reviews


Agarwal S.N. and Khan R.R. 1975. Reprint library for toxicology databank. UNESCO Bulletin for Libraries. 29(4):202-205.

Alomar M.J., et al. 2008. Evaluation of the lack of essential information in medical literature. American Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology. 3(2):201-208.

Anonymous. 1997. Toxicology and environmental health databases assessed. Public Health Reports. 112(3):179-180.


Bac R. 1980. Comparative-Study by the PDR of Toxicology Information-Retrieval from Online Literature Databases. Online 4(2):29-33.

Bawden D. and Brock A.M. 1982. Chemical toxicology searching: a collaborative evaluation, comparing information resources and searching techniques. Journal of Information Science. 5(1):3-18.

Bawden D. and Brock A.M. 1985. Chemical toxicology searching: a comparative study of online data-bases. Journal of Chemical Information & Computer Science. 25(1):31-5.

Belmonte M. 1999. [Systems of biomedical information on the internet: bibliographic contents and electronic magazines]. Rev Neurol 29(5):471-8.

Bird SB. 2008. Journal impact factors, indices, and citation analyses in toxicology. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 4(4):261-74.

Bolt H.M. 2011. Publications in toxicology: the current situation. Archives of Toxicology. 85(1):1-2.

Brüggemann R., et al. 1997. Application of formal concept analysis to evaluate environmental databases. Chemosphere 35(3):479-486.


Carr C.J. 1995. Electronic surveillance of the pharmacology-toxicology literature. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology. 21(2):207.

Cosmides G.J. 1990. Toxicological information series, I. Toxicological information. Fundamental & Applied Toxicology. 14(3):67-98.

Cosmides G.J. 1990. Toxicological information series, II. A survey of toxicological information. Fundamental & Applied Toxicology. 14(4):649-57.

Cosmides G.J. 1995. Electronic surveillance of the pharmacology-toxicology literature: the need for controlled vocabularies and registry systems. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology. 21(2):208-10.


Deck K.S. and Bonzo S.E. 1990. Some Publicly Available Sources of Computerized Information on Environmental Health and Toxicology. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control.

Duffus J.H. 1993. Glossary for chemists of terms used in toxicology. Pure & Applied Chemistry. 65(9):2003-122.


Evangelisti M., et al. 1994. Chemical hazard evaluation: the use of factual health and safety databanks. Science of the Total Environment. 153(3):211-217.


Felsot A.S. 2002. WEB resources for pesticide toxicology, environmental chemistry, and policy: a utilitarian perspective. Toxicology. 173(1):153-166.

Fisher K.D. and Carr C.J. 1975. Consumer views on information resources in toxicology. Drug Information Journal. 9(2-3):64-72.

Francisco M. 1998. Toxicology resources on the internet. Nature Biotechnology. 16(3):302.


Gardner R.A. and Spangler F. 2000. Overcoming the pitfalls of web search engines—toxicology abstracts. Toxicology. 143(3): 209-17.

Gehanno J.F., et al. 1998. Assessment of bibliographic databases performance in information retrieval for occupational and environmental toxicology. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 55:562-566.

Gerstner H.B., et al. 1975. Unique sources of drug toxicology information. Drug Information Journal. 9(2-3):161-7.

Gozalbes R. and Pineda-Lucena A. 2011. Small molecule databases and chemical descriptors useful in chemoinformatics: an overview. Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening. 14(6):548-558.

Greenberg G.N. 2002. Internet resources for occupational and environmental health professionals. Toxicology. 173(1):145-152.

Greenberg, M.I. 2001. For identifying chemicals, turn to toxicology web resources. Emergency Medicine News. 23(5):34.

Guebert M. and Guyodo G. 2002. Efficiency of 22 online databases in the search for physiochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information on chemicals. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 46(2):261-8.

Gussow L. 2010. Toxicology resources for clinicians on the internet. Emergency Medical News. 32(2):13-14.


Hakkinen P.J. 2001. Global toxicology and risk analysis: roles of the internet and World Wide Web. Toxicology 160(1-3): 59-63.

Hakkinen P.J., et al., editors 1999. Information Resources in Toxicology, 3rd Edition. New York: Academic Press.           

Halton D.M. 1986. Computerized information resources in toxicology and industrial health-a review. Toxicology & Industrial Health. 2(1):113-125.

Helma C., et al. 2000. Knowledge discovery and data mining in toxicology. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 9(4):329-358.

Heurgren G. 1991. Survey of toxicology information. Fundamental & Applied Toxicology. 16(1):210.


Johnson D.E., et al. 2001. Chem-tox informatics: data mining using a medicinal chemistry building block approach. Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development. 4(1):92-101.

Judson P.N., et al. 2005. Towards the creation of an international toxicology information centre. Toxicology. 213(1-2):117-128.

Judson R., et al. 2009. The toxicity data landscape for environmental chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(5):685-695.

Junghans T.B., et al. 2004. Cancer information resources: digital and online sources. Toxicology. 198(1):177-193.


Kazyak L. 1974. Information exchange and computerized data retrieval for toxicology. Journal of Forensic Science. 19(1):147-54.

Kehrer J.P. and Mirsalis J. 2001. Professional toxicology societies: web based resources. Toxicology. 17(1-2):67-76.

Kissman H.M. 1980. Information retrieval in toxicology. Annual Review of Toxicology. 20:285-305.

Kissman H.M. and Wexler P. 1983. Toxicological information. Annual Review of Information Science & Technology 18:185-230.

Kissman H.M. and Wexler P. 1985. Toxicology information systems: a historical perspective. Journal of Chemical Information & Computer Science. 25:212-217.


Library of Congress. 1969. A Directory of Information Resources in the United States: General Toxicology. Washington, D.C.:  National Referral Center for Science & Technology.

Liverman C.T., et al. 1997. Toxicology and environmental health information resources for health professionals: a report by the Institute of Medicine. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 85(4):423.

Lapointe G., et al. 1990. Computerized product information system: The Toxicological index. Hum Exp Toxicol. 9(4): 207-10.

Liverman C.T., et al. 1997. Toxicology and environmental health information resources for health professionals: a report by the Institute of Medicine. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 85(4):423-5.

Ludl H. et al. 1996. Searching for information on toxicological data of chemical substances in selected bibliographic databases—selection of essential databases for toxicological researchers. Chemosphere. 32(5):867-880

Lyndon M.L. 1989. Information economics and chemical toxicity: Designing laws to produce and use data. Michigan Law Review. 7:1795-1861.


Maizell R.E. 1998. How to Find Chemical Information: A Guide for Practicing Chemists, Educators and Students. New York: Wiley.

Marra C.A., et al. 1996. Drug and poison information resources on the internet. Part 2. Identification and evaluation. Pharmacotherapy. 16(5):806-18.

Mattingly C.J. 2009. Chemical databases for environmental health and clinical research. Toxicology Letters. 186(1):62-65.

Miller G.W. 2015. Data Sharing in Toxicology: Beyond Show and Tell. Toxicological Sciences. 143(1):com 3-5.

McGill J.R., et al. 1978. A computer-based toxicology search system. Journal of Environmental Pathology & Toxicology. 2(2):539-51.

Miller K.C., et al. 1974. Toxicology information—retrieval and dissemination at the Toxicology Information Resource Center. Journal of Chemical Documentation. 14(1):32-6.

Montague, P. and Pellerano, M.B. 2001. Toxicology and environmental digital resources from and for citizen groups. Toxicology. 157(1):77-88.

Montgomery R.R. 1973. An indexing coverage study of toxicological literature. Journal of Chemical Documentation. 13(1):41-44.

Mücke W., et al. 1988. System to access data sources for environmental chemicals. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 17(3):237-247.


Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1990. Access and Use of Information Resources in Assessing Health Risks from Chemical Exposure. Oak Ridge, TN.


Pal S.K., et al. 2001. Internet: a major resource for toxicologists. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 39(12):1207-13.

Parker C.M. 1988. Available toxicology information sources and their use. In Product Safety Evaluation Handbook. New York: Marcel Dekker. Pages 23-41.


Ren-jie Z. 2005. Application of toxicological literatures and fact databases. Journal of Ningbo University (Natural Science & Engineering Edition). 2:037. Chinese.

Rice C.N. 1969. New directions in information resources for industrial hygiene and occupational health. AIHA Journal. 30(4):341-3.

Rice C.N. 1969. Toward a national systems resource in toxicology. Journal of Chemical Documentation.  9(3):181-183.

Richard A.M., et al. 2008. Toxicity data informatics: supporting a new paradigm for toxicity prediction. Toxicology Mechanisms & Methods. 18(2-3):103-118.

Richard A.M., et al. 2006. Chemical structure indexing of toxicity data on the internet: moving toward a flat world. Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development. 9(3):314-25.

Robinson L. 2002. Toxicology Information and Knowledge: The Impact of New Information and Communication Technologies. Doctoral dissertation: University College London.

Robinson L. 2007. Impact of digital information resources in the toxicology literature. Aslib Proceedings. 59(4/5):342-351.

Robinson L., et al. 2000. Comparative evaluation of the performance of online databases in answering toxicology queries. International Journal of Information Management. 20(1):79-87.

Russom C.L. 2002. Mining environmental toxicology information: web resources. Toxicology. 173(1-2):75-88.


Sato C. 1998. The selected information sources on poisoning and toxicology. Hawaii Medical Journal. 57(3):455-6.

Sexton, K., et al. 1992. Estimating human exposures to environmental pollutants: availability and utility of existing databases. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal. 47(6):398-407.

Sidhu K.S., et al. 1989. Information sources and support networks in toxicology. International Journal of Toxicology. 8(5):1011-1026.

South J.C. 2001. Online resources for news about toxicology and other environmental topics. Toxicology. 157(1):153-164.

Stepanskii G.A. 1977. [Present status and future of scientific information on pharmacology, toxicology and chemotherapy]. Farmakol Toksikol. 40(4):487-93. Russian.

Stoss F. W. 2001. Subnational sources of toxicology information: state, territorial, tribal, county, municipal, and community resources online. Toxicology. 157(1):51-65.

Swuste P. and Hale A. 1994. Databases on measures to prevent occupational exposure to toxic substances. Applied Occupational & Environmental Hygiene. 9(1):57-61.


Voigt K. and Brüggemann R. 1995. Toxicology databases in the metadatabank of online databases. Toxicology. 100(1):225-240.

Voigt K. and Welzl G. 2002. Chemical databases: an overview of selected databases and evaluation methods. Online Information Review. 26(3):172-192.

Voigt K., et al. 1989. Databanks of data sources for environmental chemicals. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 23(1-4):243-250.

Voigt K., et al. 2006. Information quality of environmental and chemical databases exemplified by high production volume chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Online Information Review. 30(1):8-23.


Wang J., et al. 1999. Data mining of toxic chemicals: Structure patterns and QSAR. Journal of Molecular Modeling. 5(11):252-262.

Ward J.M. 2006. So many web sites, so little time! Toxicologic Pathology. 34(3):314-315.

Ward J.M. 2007. RSS feeds: sweating the really simple stuff. Toxicologic Pathology. 35(6):846-847.

Wassom J.S. 1985. Use of selected toxicology information resources in assessing relationships between chemical structure and biological activity. Environmental Health Perspectives. 61:287-294.

Wexler P. 1990. A survey of toxicology information. Toxicological Sciences. 14(4):649-657.

Wexler P. 1990. The framework of toxicology information. Toxicology. 60(1-2):67-98.

Wexler P. 1990. Toxicological information series. II. A survey of toxicology information. Fundamental & Applied Toxicology 14(4):649-57.

Wexler P., et al. 1989. Toxicology information and computer sources for the medical practitioner. Journal of Medical Practice Management. 5(1):36-44.

Wexler P., et al. 2012. The World Library of Toxicology, Chemical Safety, and Environmental Health (WLT). Human & Experimental Toxicology. 31(3):207-14.

Wolfgang G.H. and Johnson D.E. 2002. Web resources for drug toxicity. Toxicology. 173(1-2):67-74.

Wood F.E., et al. 1989. Evaluations using test queries of chemical hazards databases and databanks. Journal of Information Science. 15(4-5):269-276.

Wright L.L. 2001. Searching fee and non-fee toxicology information resources: an overview of selected databases. Toxicology. 157(1):89-110.

Wukovitz L.D. 2001. Using internet search engines and library catalogs to locate toxicology information. Toxicology. 157(1-2):121-39.


Yang C., et al. 2006. Landscape of current toxicity databases and database standards. Current Opinion in Drug Discovery Development. 9(1):124-133.

Yang C., et al. 2006. The art of data mining the minefields of toxicity databases to link chemistry to biology. Current Computer-Aided Drug Design 2(2):135-150.

Yokel R.A., et al. 1978. A comparison of four toxicology resources in respect to rates of retrieval and time required. Journal of Pediatrics. 92(1):145-8.

Continue to Reviews of Specific Databases and Ready References, A-E.

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