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Fishcher L.1943. Medical Folk Lore in Afghanistan. Deutsche Tropenmedizinische Zeitschrift. 47(13/14):346-54.


Gopalan H.N. 1986. Genetic toxicology in Africa: problems and perspectives. Progress in Clinical & Biological Research. 209B:283-7.

Gulumian M., et al. 2005. Africa’s present and future needs in toxicology education. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 207(2):728-734.

Naude T.W. and Botha C.J. 2001. Southern African veterinary toxicology in the African context. Veterinary & Human Toxicology. 43(5):308-309.

Rumbeiha W.K. 2001. Opportunities and challenges of strengthening veterinary toxicology in Africa in the 21st century. Veterinary & Human Toxicology. 43(2):65-69.

Stewart M. J. 2002. South Africa: A toxicologist's goldmine. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 24(1):172-177.

Stewart M.J., et al. 2000. Forensic toxicology in urban South Africa. Clinical Toxicology. 38(4): 415-419.

Vigan C. 1956. [Industrial hygiene in Sahara]. Arch Mal Prof. 17(2):163-83. French.


Dizdari A.M., et al. 2012. The use of higher plants as bio-indicators of environmental pollution–a new approach for toxicity screening in Albania. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 3(8):241-252.

Simoni S. and Vyshka G. 2013. The medical toxicologist in Albanian court: ethical and legal issues. International Journal of Clinical Toxicology. 1(1):27-30.

Vyshka, G. 2013. The medical toxicologist in an Albanian court: ethical and legal issues. International Journal of Clinical Toxicology. 1(1): 27-30.




Pedro Neto, A., et al. 2014. Centro de Información de Medicamentos y Toxicología (CIMETOX): Primer reporte de intoxicaciones agudas en Angola. Revista Habanera de Ciencias Médicas. 13(3):455-465.

Neto A.P., et al. 2015. Sistema de información estadística integrado de intoxicaciones agudas como base del sistema de toxicovigilancia en Angola. Revista Habanera de Ciencias Médicas. 14(5):697-711.

Antigua & Barbuda

Arab Countries, General

Mansour S.A. 2001. Workshop Egyptox-2000: for better environmental education by the birth of the new millennium. Environmental Health Perspectives. 109(2):197.

Zyoud S.H., et al. 2014. A bibliometric analysis of toxicology research productivity in Middle Eastern Arab countries during a 10-year period (2003-2012). Health Research Policy & Systems 12:4.


López T.A. 1989. Importance of the development of veterinary toxicology in Argentina. Biomedical & Environmental Science. 2(1):7-16.

Werner A.F. 2000. Occupational health in Argentina. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 73(5):285-289.


Gasparyan G.H., et al. 2009. Alternative in vitro toxicology: the present and future in Armenia. The New Armenian Medical Journal. 3(2):49-57.


Guo H.R., et al. 2015. Environmental toxicology in addressing public health challenges in East Asia. Biomedical Research International. 2015:920518.

Makalinao I.R. and Awang R. 2005. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia’s need for toxicology education. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 207(S2):716-21.

Widianarko B., et al. 1997. Environmental toxicology in south East Asia. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology. 3:171.


Afshari R. 2011. Medical (clinical) toxicology education in Asia pacific region. Future of Medical Education Journal. 1(1):2-2.

Afshari R. 2012. A new horizon to medical toxicology in Asia Pacific region. Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology. 1(1):2.

Afshari R. 2013. Empowerment of medical toxicology in Asia Pacific Region. Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2(2):36-36.

Afshari R. 2014. Scientometric analysis of toxicology in Asia pacific region: signs of growth. Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology. 3(3):92-96.

Ahokas J., et al. 2005. Distance learning in toxicology: Australia's RMIT program. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 207(2):738-745.

Burcham P.C. 2008. Toxicology down under: achievements, present realities and future prospects. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 21(5):967-970.

Currie B.J. 2000. Clinical toxicology: a tropical Australian perspective. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 22(1):73-8.

Drummer O. H. 2003. Emerging trends in forensic toxicology. Australian Journal of Forensic Science. 35(1):141-148.

Gowland A., et al. 2012. The current status of environmental health research in Australia. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 22(4):362-369.

Hinwood A.L. and Di Marco P.N. 2002. Evaluating hazardous air pollutants in Australia. Toxicology. 181:361-366.

Lawrence G. 2002. Toxinology down under. The Lancet. 359(9311):1074.

Leaver D. 1987. Veterinary toxicology in Australia. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 8(7):262-265.

Lee V., et al. 2001. Impact of a toxicology service on a metropolitan teaching hospital. Emergency Medicine. 13(1):37-42.

Priestly B.G. and Moore M.R. 2008. Toxicology down under. A different perspective. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 21(8):1497-1497.

Priestly B.G., et al. 2007. Toxicology in Australia: a key component of environmental health. Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health Part A: Current Issues 70(19):1578-1583.

Russell R.W. and Singer G. 1982. Behavioural toxicology: The emergence of a new discipline in Australian psychology? Australian Psychologist. 17(2):199-215.

Smith D.R. and Leggat P.A. 2004. The historical development of occupational health in Australia. Part 1. 1788-1970. JUOEH 26(4):431-441. 

Winkel K.D., et al. 2006. Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia. Toxicon. 48(7):738-54.


Thomas A. and Dorner E. 2014. Public health in Austria: a snapshot. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 164(7-8):121-122.

Wolf C., et al. 1997. Occupational medicine in Austria. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 69(3):151-156.


Bahamas, The


Al Hilli F. 2002. History of medical laboratory services in Bahrain. Part 1. The beginning and early developments (1940-1963). Bahrain Medical Bulletin. 24(4).

Al Hilli F. 2003. History of medical laboratory services in Bahrain. Part II. The foundation of modern laboratory services. Bahrain Medical Bulletin. 25(1).

Balkan Countries

Igic R. 2004. Remarkable research, humble conditions: conducting science in the Balkans requires a special endurance. The Scientist. 18(9):8-9.

Mircioiu C. 2002. 5th Xenobiotic Metabolism and Toxicity Workshop of Balkan Countries Constanta, Romania, May 29—June 1, 2002. European Journal of Drug Metabolism & Pharmacokinetics. 27(4):289-289.


Abu Sayeed, A. 2013. The way through empowerment of medical toxicology in Bangladesh. Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2(4):160-160.

Chowdhury F.R. And Hassan N. 2013. Empowerment of medical toxicology in Bangladesh: Inspiration from the APAMT. Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2(3):117-117.

Gupta B.M. 2013. Bangladesh: A scientometric analysis of national publications output in S&T, 2001-10. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology. 33(1).




Charlier C. and Plomteux G. 1998. [Alcohol, drugs, medication and highway safety in Belgium. Belgian Toxicology and Trauma Study Research Group]. Revue medicale de Liege. 53(1):25-28. French.

Hoet P. and Lison D. 1996. The practice of occupational and environmental health in Belgium. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 68(3):137-140.



Arouko H. 2002. [Installation of a toxicology information center at the National University Hospital Center of Cotonou (Benin)]. Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique. 95(3):214-216. French.

Fofana R., et al. 2010. Eco-toxicological approach as a contribution to Integrated Water Resources Management of Okpara dam at Kpassa in Benin; Toxic metals (Pb, Hg, As and Cd) assessment in Fishes (Tilapia Guineensis) and Freshwater. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. 4(10):24-29.



Bosnia & Herzegovina

Mahmić-Kaknjo M., et al. 2015. Cochrane and its prospects in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Relying on Cochrane Croatia. Acta Medica Academica. 44(1):58.

Mulabegović N., et al. 2000. Institute of pharmacology, clinical pharmacology and toxicology “Pavel Stern.” Folia Medica Facultatis Medicinae Universitatis Saraeviensis [Journal of the Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo]. 45(2):95-99.

Todic M., et al. 2003. Toxicological documentation for marketing authorization in the European union and federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Toxicology Letters. 144: s188.



Bedrikow B., et al. 1997. Occupational health in Brazil. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 70:215–221.

de Lima M.E., et al. 2010. Toxinology in Brazil: a big challenge for a rich biodiversity. Toxicon. 56(7):1084-91.

de Carvalho A.M. 1971. Historical recall of the development of industrial hygiene and work safety in Brazil. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Médecine du Travail et de Sécurité Sociale. 32(6):509.

Dias E.C., et al. 2002. Occupational health in Brazil. Occupational Medicine. 17(3):523-37.

Elisabetsky E. and Wannmacher L. 1993. The status of Ethnopharmacology in Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 38(2-3):137-43.

Facci R. 2001. Occupational health in Brazil. International Journal of Occupational Safety & Ergonomics. 7(4):493-506.

Kempinas Wde G. and Barbosa F Jr. 2010. Toxicology and environmental health in Brazil: important topics in an emerging economy.  Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health A. 73(13-14):849.

Krull M., et al. 2011. State of the art of Brazilian ecotoxicology. Integrated & Environmental Assessment & Management. 7(4):690-1.

Loureiro A. and Augusto O. 2008. Toxicological issues in Brazil range from long-standing problems to novel challenges. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 21(2):267-271.

Vangelder G. 1977. Veterinary toxicologist needed for Brazil. Veterinary & Human Toxicology. 19(4):276-276.

Yonamine M. 2010. Beating drug tests and defending positive results: a toxicologist's perspective. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 46(4):823-824.


Mirchev N., et al. 1993. Structure and functions of the National Center of Clinical Toxicology in Bulgaria. A statistical analysis of the annual diagnostic and treatment activities. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 15(2):169.

Trakhtenberg I.M., et al. 1971. [Current problems of industrial hygiene, occupational diseases and industrial toxicology in Bulgaria]. Gigiena i Sanitariia. 36(4):85-90.

Yovcheva M. 2012. Deontological problems of clinical toxicology in Bulgaria, connected to communication difficulties, during the decade 2000-2010. Journal of Imab–Annual Proceeding Scientific Papers. 18(3):308-311.


Cimbura G. 1977. Forensic toxicology in Canada. Canadian Society of Forensic Science. 11(2):129-142.

Josephy P.D. and Cyr D.G. 2008. Northern exposures, northern risks: toxicology in Canada. Chem Res Toxicol 21(10): 1909-12.

Kay K. 1946. Development of industrial hygiene in Canada. Industrial Safety Survey. 22(1):1-11.

Racz W.J., et al. 2003. Online sources of toxicological information in Canada. Toxicology. 190(1-2):3-14.

Slovic P., et al. 1995. Intuitive toxicology. II. Expert and lay judgments of chemical risks in Canada. Risk Analysis. 15(6): 661-675.

Somers E. 1986. The weight of evidence: regulatory toxicology in Canada. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology. 6(4):391-398.


Author Unknown. 2000. Looking back to the 50 years of toxicology in China. Chinese Journal of Industrial Medicine. 13(2).

Author Unknown. 2005. On the history of toxicology in ancient China. Science. 57(3).

Chen Z.Q. and Wang G.S. 1999. A profile of study on neurobehavioral toxicology in China. Hygienics & Toxicology. 13:234-238.

Guidotti T.L. and Levister E.C. 1995. Occupational health in China: Rising with force and spirit. Occupational Medicine. 45(3):117-124.

He F. 1998. Occupational medicine in China. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 71(2):79-84.

Li Y., et al. 2009. Clinical toxicology in china: current situation and future development. Clinical Toxicology. 47(4):263-9.

Liang Y.X., et al. 1997. The development of neurobehavioral toxicology in China: The 1994 Hänninen Lectur. Environmental Research. 73(1):9-17.

Liang Y., et al. 2006. The development and regulation of occupational exposure limits in China. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology. 46(2):107-13.

Qu W. and Zheng W. 2008. The developments and challenges of toxicology education, research and funding in China. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 21(9):1643-1646.

Tan C.C. and Liu T.H. 1986. Recent advances in genetic toxicology in china. Progress in Clinical Biological Research. 209B:289-94.

Wang H., et al. 2010. An overview of developmental and reproductive toxicity risk assessment in China. Birth Defects Research B: Developmental & Reproductive Toxicology. 89(1):2-8.

Wu C. 2010. Overview of developmental and reproductive toxicity research in China: history, funding mechanisms, and frontiers of the research. Birth Defects Research B: Developmental & Reproductive Toxicology. 89(1):9-17.

Zhu B.Z. and Hollenberg P.F. 2015. Chemical toxicology in China: A Special Issue. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 28(3):279-280.


de la Hoz R.E., et al. 2000. Occupational and environmental medicine in Columbia.  International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 73(3):145-9.

Central African Republic


Kniewald J. and Kniewald Z. 1995. Environmental impact, healthful food and education in toxicology—trends in Croatia. Central European Journal of Public Health. 3(3):163-8.


Pérez Barly, L., et al. 2014. Origen e historia de la Toxicología. Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar. 43(4):499-514.


Cikrt M., et al. 1996. Occupational and environmental medicine in Czech Republic. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 69(2):79-82.

Teisinger. 1955. [Development of industrial hygiene in Czechoslovakia as science]. Prac Lek. 7(3):136-9. Czech.


Kæmpe A. 1996. Human forensic toxicology in Denmark (DK). Earlier, now and in the future. The Bulletin of the International Association of Forensics Toxicologists. 1:26, 27-32.

Netterstrøm B. and Grandjean P. 1998. Occupational and environmental medicine in Denmark. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 71(1):3-6.

Netterstrøm B. and Grandjean P. 1998. Occupational and environmental medicine in Denmark. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 71(1):3-6.


El Salvador


Europe/European Union     

De Laender F., et al. 2013. A re-evaluation of fifteen years of European risk assessment using effect models. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry. 32(3):594-601.

Descotes J. 1994. The status and future of toxicology in Europe. Veterinary & Human Toxicology. 36(2):142-3.

Ettlin R.A., et al. 2001. Careers in toxicology in Europe—options and requirements. Archives of Toxicology. 75:251-261.

Fowler J. and Galli C.L. 2007. EUROTOX's view regarding the role and training of certified European registered toxicologists (ERT). Toxicology Letters. 168(3):192-199.

Kello D. 1992. Medical toxicology in Europe: present and future. Archives of Toxicology. S15:3-11.

Klapwijk P.M., et al. 2000. Microbiological risk assessment in Europe: the next decade. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 58(3):223-230.

Kroes R. 2000. Pan-European research challenges in toxicology and epidemiology: twinning for the better. Toxicol Letters. 112-113:573-5.

Miró O. et al. 2009. Trends in research activity in toxicology and by toxicologists in seven European countries. Toxicol Letters. 189(1):1-4.

Parry J.M. 2000. Reflections on the implications of thresholds of mutagenic activity for the labelling of chemicals by the European Union. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 464(1):155-158.

Pauwels M. and Rogiers V. 2004. Safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: reality and challenges for the toxicologist. Toxicology Letters. 151(1):7-17.

Savolainen K.M. 1998. Registration of toxicologists in Europe. Journal of Toxicological Sciences. 23(S2):268-72.

Schenk, L., et al. 2008. Are occupational exposure limits becoming more alike within the European Union? Journal of Applied Toxicology. 28(7): 858-866.

Van Damme K. and Casteleyn L. 2003. Current scientific, ethical and social issues of biomonitoring in the European Union. Toxicology Letters. 144(1):117-126.

Williams E.S., et al. 2009. The European Union’s REACH regulation: a review of its history and requirements. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 39(7):553-575.

Zucco F. and Vignoli A.L. 1998. In vitro toxicology in Europe 1986-1997. Toxicology in Vitro. 12(6):739-928.


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