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While significant research has looked at the impacts of pesticides on the environment, another research focus is examining how long these chemicals remain in the environment, perpetuating their negative effects. Often held in soils, particular pesticides that don't quickly degrade can pose long lasting effects to the environment as well as humans. An application of such a pesticide can have last impacts years into the future.


Article 1
_Osano, Odipo, Daniel Nzyuko, Mwakio Tole, and Wim Admiraal. "The Fate of Chloroacetanilide Herbicides and Their Degradation Products in the Nzoia Basin, Kenya." Ambio 32.6 (2003): 424-27.

Summary of Article 1
This study examines the persistence of chloroacetanilide herbicides in a river basin in the African country of Kenya. This river basin is experiencing an increase in agriculture due to significant population growth. The researchers analyzed water and sediment samples to determine the pollution levels caused by these herbicides. The herbicides themselves were not seen in high levels, but the products of their degradation, which are toxic and considered a pollutant, were seen at levels exceeding limits set by the European Economic Commission. This finding is of concern because increased agricultural activity will cause the use of these pesticides to increase, threatening the safety and health of this river basin and the people who depend on it.


Article 2
Connor, Michael S., Jay A. Davis, Jon Leatherbarrow, Ben K. Greenfield, Andrew Gunther, Dane Hardin, Thomas Mumley, John J. Oram, and Christine Werme. "The slow recovery of San Francisco Bay from the legacy of organochlorine pesticides." Environmnetal Research 105 (2007): 87-100.

Summary of Article 2
This study discusses the impact that one type of pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, has had on the water and marine life of San Francisco Bay. These pesticides were in high use for much of the second half of the 20th century in areas hundreds of miles from San Francisco. They travelled through waterways and ended up in the Bay where they are still recorded in high concentrations to the point that most marine life is considered hazardous to eat. The researchers project that it will likely take several decades if not longer for the Bay and its marine life to return to a stable and safe state.


Article 3
Weber, Jan, Crispin J. Halsall, Derek Muir, Camilla Texeira, Jeff Small, Keith Solomon, Mark Hermanson, Hayley Hung, and Terry Bidleman. "Endosulfan, a global pesticide: A review of its fate in the environment and occurrence in the Arctic." Science of the Total Environment (2009).

Summary of Article 3
This study examines the spread and distribution of Endosulfan, one of the most widely used pesticides in the world. Researchers examined the presence of this chemical and its degraded components in the air, vegetation, and water of points around the planet. They found that it has been able to transport itself throughout the world. Endosulfan has been found in the Arctic Ocean as well as in air samples from the Antarctic and the glaciers of mountain ranges in the United States and Europe. Accumulations of endosulfan have been detected in marine life, signaling that is has entered the food web. Its continued use will further its reach around the planet and increase threats of environmental contamination.

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