Biomimicry in the Northwest

Exploring Possibilities for Biomimicry in the Northwest

Jan Keller
Portfolio Project, Integrative Environmental Sciences
September 6, 2009

Contents


Introduction
Demographics and diversity
Land use
Food crops
Watershed, water sources, and water conservation
Water quality
Energy use
Human health
Wastes and handling of wastes
Summary
Recommendations and Conclusion
References

Introduction


My portfolio project focuses on the area around Redmond, west and a little north of Lake Sammamish. This area is in many ways similar to King County as a whole, and to the larger region of "Cascadia," which the Sightline Institute describes as "British Columbia, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and adjoining parts of Alaska, Montana, and California." Therefore, I made use of Redmond city data, King County data, and Cascadia data, as appropriate and available for my project. Also, as an integral part of this project, I identified some challenges we face and sought out design ideas using the scientific approach called "biomimicry."

Biomimicry is an approach that sees nature as model, measure, and mentor (Biomimicry Institute Web site, 2009):
• Nature as model: Biomimicry is a new science that studies nature's models and then emulates these forms, process, systems, and strategies to solve human problems - sustainably. ...
• Nature as measure: Biomimicry uses an ecological standard to judge the sustainability of our innovations. After 3.8 billion years of evolution, nature has learned what works and what lasts. ...
• Nature as mentor: Biomimicry is a new way of viewing and valuing nature. It introduces an era based not on what we can extract from the natural world, but what we can learn from it.

Biomimicry recognizes the fact that living things have solved almost all the design challenges that humans face, often in a multitude of ways. A biomimic is keenly interested in the question "How would Nature do it?" and is especially curious about how life does the most amazing thing of all: continuously creating the conditions for more life. For the biomimicry ideas in this project, I drew from multiple sources, primarily Janine Benyus' book Biomimicry and the biomimicry Web site called Ask Nature (http://www.asknature.org).

The area I studied is suburban and urban, although it has a few patches that could be considered semi-rural. It includes Microsoft, parts of 520, and Redmond, as well as areas such as Marymoor Park (640 acres) and part of the Sammamish Slough (Sammamish River). The area's ecosystem, outside of its wetlands, can reach a climax state as a temperate rain forest, which would include Douglas fir, hemlock, Western red cedar, and alder as some of the primary plant species. In addition, salmon are a keystone species in our ecosystems, as described by David Suzuki in a talk at Seattle's Town Hall on April 7, 2009 (recorded by radio station KUOW). He described how the salmon are dependent on the trees, which shade and cool the water, and hold the soil so the streams stay clear. But, he said, the trees are also dependent on the salmon, because it is the salmon who bring much-needed nitrogen back when they return after their long sojourn in the ocean. We would not have the trees we have without the salmon. (Recording available at http://www.kuow.org/program.php?id=17278 .) There are undoubtedly lessons that a biomimic can learn (and appreciate!) from this, and from other designs in our amazing salmon / fir / hemlock / cedar ecosystems, as well as ecosystems around the world.

Structure of the paper
For most sections in this paper, I provide some description and then a "Biomimicry ideas" subsection. The exception is the "Demographics and diversity" section, which describes demographics but does not attempt to define challenges in relation to those demographics.

The References section at the end is subdivided, with links for biomimicry topics (plus the Introduction and Summary) followed by links for the individual sections, in the same order that those sections appear in the paper.

Demographics and diversity


The population of Redmond, approximately 46,400 in 2003, represents the approximate human population of the area I am focusing on. The population is similar demographically to King County, in which about 69% are "White persons not Hispanic," about 13% are Asian, about 7% are Hispanic or Latino origin, and about 6% are Black, with the remaining people including multi-racial people, American Indians and Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. (See http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/53/53033.html .) Age-wise, the population of King County is approximately:
• 21.6% under 18
• 67.7% between 18 and 64
• 10.7% age 65 and older

The age of the population is shifting over time, as described in this excerpt from the Seattle-King County 2006-2007 Area Plan on Aging Update :
Between 2000 and 2010, King County's 60 and older population is expected to grow in absolute terms (from 239,857 to 313,456) and as a share of the total population (from 13.8% to 16.8%).... It is estimated that by 2025, the 60+ cohort will represent almost a quarter of the County population.

Land use


The part of King County around Redmond is all within the Urban Growth Area Boundary of the King County Comprehensive Plan (developed to comply with the Washington State Growth Management Act of 1990). For a map, see http://your.kingcounty.gov/ftp/ddes/acrobat/gis/generalized_cplu.pdf

As in the rest of King County, in the Redmond area we like to preserve green spaces, but also will "develop" land (that is, tear out the trees and plants, build buildings, pave, and re-landscape) after established procedures are carried out. There are commitments to comply with the Growth Management Act, but sometimes there has been controversy about whether approved building projects actually comply, meaning that not everyone agrees that we have adhered to the commitments in every project.

Biomimicry ideas for challenges related to land use

Here are some biomimicry ideas that could potentially be applied to challenges we face in making sound decisions about land use:
• Using self-organization to establish patterns in shared dwelling areas: In honey bees, the workers and the queen use self-organization to establish patterns of different cell-types in their hive. There are variations among hives, but often the pattern is "a central brood area, a surrounding zone of pollen cells, and a large peripheral region of honey cells" (Hölldobbler and Wilson, 2009, pp. 474-475). No single member of the hive regulates or polices this organization. Instead, simple rules followed by individual bees, and the egg-laying queen, cause the pattern to emerge (Hölldobbler and Wilson, pp. 475-477).

Similarly, we can examine the land use patterns we want and don't want, and set up simple incentive patterns that will tend to produce the patterns that we want. I would suggest that Jaime Lerner's thinking as mayor of Curitiba (Brazil) makes use of this principle. He did not just think about the city patterns that would help the city function better. He also thought one step farther, in terms of systems of incentives that help people self-organize into the desired patterns. For example, building height near bus routes is zoned to allow tall buildings, and bus services are designed to be fast and efficient. Together these provide a self-organizing pattern where many people live within walking distance of bus stops, which in turn tends to increase ridership, helping the bus system to work more efficiently. This in turn is linked to the existence of many parks in and around the city, mitigating the effects of population density. (McKibben, 1995, pp. 67-68, 71-72). See References.

• Making density more livable: Social animals use a variety of designs to make the structures in which they live (at relatively high densities compared to non-social animals) more livable. Prairie dogs and termites both provide examples where designs provide ventilation with no added energy beyond the natural way that air flows in their environment. ("Burrow shape creates ventilation: prairie dog" and "Ventilated nests remove heat and gas: mound-building termites," www.AskNature.org ). Study of these and other designs and practices of social animals (including other organisms such as bees, mole rats, and rabbits) might reveal how they live densely together but still allow flow and movement through their spaces, so that stress is minimized. This may offer insights into ways we can make our buildings and cities more livable. See References.

Food crops


A wide variety of fruits and vegetables can be grown here. Full Circle Farm (near but not in the area I am focusing on) provides an example that represents the bounty of this area. From their Web site ( http://www.fullcirclefarm.com/about.html ): "...Full Circle Farm is a family farm growing more than 125 varieties of certified organic fruits and vegetables."

People in the Redmond area are gradually moving toward more organic approaches to gardens and landscaping, but the use of pesticides and herbicides continues to present problems. King County has been using various methods to try to educate homeowners about alternatives to pesticides, for example, on their Web site at http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/soils/chemicaluse.asp.

Biomimicry ideas for challenges related to growing food crops

Here are some biomimicry ideas that could be applied to challenges we face in growing our food sustainably:
• Growing fertility, not just nourishment: Natural ecosystems grow not only the nourishment for the plant-eating creatures in the system. They grow fertility that sustains them through future yearly cycles. Janine Benyus (1997, pp. 12-13) describes it this way:
When you look at a prairie... you see a system that runs on sun and rain, year after year... It drinks in no excess inputs and excretes no damaging wastes.... What if we were to remake agriculture using crops that had that same kind of self-sufficiency, that ability to live amiably with their fieldmates, stay in sync with their surroundings, build soil beneath them, and handle pests with aplomb? What would agriculture look like?
Well, that depends on where you live.... agriculture in an area would take its cue from the vegetation that grew there before settlement. Using human foods planted in the patterns of natural plant communities, agriculture would imitate as closely as possible the structure and function of a mature natural ecosystem. Threading our needle with the roots of such a stable system, we would sew up one of the deepest wounds on the planet--the gash made by till agriculture.

In our area, there are at least two clear lines of study and practice that can contribute to this. One is work with permaculture and similar ideas (for example, see the listing for Wild Thyme Farm in References). Another is study of the practices of the Native Americans of our area, who maintained or even enhanced fertility as they harvested food and other resources (for example, see Nancy J. Turner's work in References).

Watershed, water sources, and water conservation


The watershed in the locale that I am studying is the Sammamish watershed. Drinking water comes from the Tolt Reservoir, located east of Duvall, Washington. The whole area, plus surrounding areas, has been part of the Cascade Water Alliance since 1999 (see http://www.cascadewater.org/about_members.php ).

King County has water conservation programs aimed at educating the public about the importance of saving water. In addition, the city of Redmond, in conjunction with the Cascade Water Alliance, conducts various educational and rebate campaigns to raise awareness about water, and to encourage residents to purchase water-saving toilets and appliances.

Biomimicry ideas for challenges related to the watershed, water sources, and water conservation

Here are some biomimicry ideas that could be applied to challenges we face in conserving water:
• Mimicking the original water-flow patterns and water-holding capacities in the ecosystem (even as we build infrastructure): Although we can learn about and mimic amazing desert creatures like the thorny devil (lizard) that can wick moisture up from the sand it stands on, I believe it is far more important to focus on fundamentals. We need to continue studying how intact Northwest ecosystems naturally slow and regulate the flow of water through the system. This can be especially helpful if predictions of climate change continue to come true, and our snowpack lessens dramatically and/or our summer droughts extend, requiring us to try to maximize retention of water through the summer and early fall. In our area, growing systemic water-holding capacity basically translates into protecting forests and expanding our rate of tree-planting and riparian restoration. All of this can decrease runoff, shade streams (making any water that is available better habitat for salmon), and allow soils to regenerate. We may also need to look at whether tree species other than the typical ones for our area should be included in the mix of plantings, if other climate-change predictions come true and disease increases in our forests. If changing the mix of plantings is necessary, mimicking what we see in Nature will probably be best, by trying tree and understory species seen in regions a little drier and warmer than ours. For example, Garry oak, which is more adapted to drier conditions (Mathews, 1998/90, p. 70), may eventually do better here than some of the species that grew best in previous centuries.
See References.

• Transporting and filtering water locally using passive (plant-mimicking) systems: In some cases, we can decrease the size of centralized water systems that support large numbers of people by also creating smaller, localized systems, for example, greywater systems that circulate water through a garden. Ideally, these systems would move the water using the least energy possible, perhaps with efficient pumps based on the shape of kelp, perhaps by mimicking the passive water-transport systems (xylem) used in plants and trees. As needed, such a system could perhaps use a bio-inspired filtering method, like that of mangroves, to ensure that the greywater does not cause a buildup of soap or salt in the soil.
See References.

Water quality


In Western Washington, including the Redmond area, water quality is intimately linked to the health of forests and the health of salmon habitat. When we take steps to protect or restore forests, streams, wetlands, or salmon-- for example, by limiting or ending use of herbicides on suburban lawns, limiting the cutting of forest for roads or other "development," or placing rain gardens and swales into our populated areas-- in most cases we will also be protecting or restoring water quality for humans. Therefore, the sections in this project that cover land use, water sources, and water conservation, all relate to this section on water quality. All of these sections are related in turn to the section on human health.

In late 2008, the Redmond Urban Watersheds Initiative (RUWI) completed and published a study that examined the relationships between land use and pollutants generated by stormwater systems in Redmond. A number of important recommendations came out of the study, including the following recommendation (part of #3 on the list):
Apply Low Impact Development (LID) stormwater management techniques to encourage stormwater infiltration. Establish and maintain bioswales and other natural systems to "cleanse" stormwater before it reaches creeks, streams, lakes, and aquifers.
For more information, see the Watershed Management page on the Redmond Web site.

Biomimicry ideas for challenges related to water quality

Here are some biomimicry ideas that could be applied to challenges we face with water quality:

• Bioremediation and mycoremediation: Bioremediation and mycoremediation can mean that we grow plants or mushrooms where they can filter toxins or microbes out of water (Stamets, 2005, pp. 82-109; Luu, 2009). Although this is more basic than "biomimicry" (understanding and mimicking the way these organisms remove toxins or microbes), it is an excellent strategy. And it comes from the same spirit as biomimicry, an appreciation of Nature and a curiosity that asks, "How would Nature do it?" See References.

• Bio-inspired filtering methods: We may be able to learn from organisms that have to deal with salt water, such as mangroves and penguins, and apply that learning to filtering methods that protect or improve water quality. See References.

Energy use


In Washington state, the main sources of energy are hydroelectricity (approximately 74% of our electricity), natural gas, and (for transportation) gasoline and diesel. Coal provides about 8% of Washington state's electricity.

We are heavy users of energy. The Cascadia Scorecard describes our energy use patterns very bluntly: "Energy remains the worst-performing trend in the Cascadia Scorecard" (http://scorecard.sightline.org/energy.html ). However, there are indications that change is happening. As of August 2009, the Municipal Research and Services Center of Washington has a listing of "Energy Conservation Programs and Consumer Information" that includes more than 10 programs, plus a listing of government programs to conserve energy. For more information, see http://www.mrsc.org/subjects/environment/energyconservation.aspx .

Biomimicry ideas for challenges related to energy use

Here are some biomimicry ideas that could be applied to challenges we face in obtaining and using energy. These also apply to challenges related to climate change:
• Using minimal amounts of energy for moving gases or liquids: as mentioned in "Biomimicry ideas for challenges related to the watershed, water sources, and water conservation," we can mimic the way organisms (such as trees and other plants) transport water locally. Also, when we do use pumps, fans, or propellers, we can design them by mimicking the spiral shapes of kelp, an organism highly adapted to water flows and turbulence. (Pax Scientific is already designing such pumps, fans, and propellers.)
See References.

• Capturing energy from sunlight: Photosynthesis has long been studied, and although it is not completely understood or mimicked, there is a technology called dye solar cells or dye-sensitized solar cells that partially mimics photosynthesis. This could result in inexpensive solar cells that don't require the use of toxic substances to build. See References.

• Growing algae as a polyculture for fuel: The process of raising algae that can produce oil that can be turned into biodiesel appears promising. However, when researchers have tried to grow algae in outdoor ponds, using a monoculture of the richest oil-producing algae species, they have run into difficulties with "contamination" of other species of algae and bacteria. But in true biomimicry fashion, researchers at Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation in New Zealand have been working with growing algae outside in ponds in polycultures (since organisms in Nature almost always grow in polycultures). I suspect that more study and mimicking of the way the organisms that eat algae accomplish their harvesting of preferential species could also yield good results in this work. See References.

Human health


In the Cascadia Scorecard, human health is one of the indicators where the region is doing well. The indicator reflects a multitude of different causes and effects in our region.

One significant factor affecting human health in the United States and Canada is exposure to toxics that include compounds such as bisphenol-A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDEs, heavy metals, and other chemicals that can disrupt living processes even at low levels. To help educate residents of the Redmond area and surrounding areas, the Local Hazardous Waste Program in King County has put together various kinds of information. They have a variety of pages including one on disposal of household hazardous waste at http://www.govlink.org/hazwaste/house/disposal/ and another on alternatives to household hazardous waste products at http://www.govlink.org/hazwaste/house/alternatives/ .

Biomimicry ideas for challenges related to human health

Here are some biomimicry ideas that could be applied to human health challenges we face:
• Biomimicry focused on nontoxic chemical processes: This is a major area within biomimicry: the field of bio-inspired materials science (and there is also the related field of green chemistry, see Anastas and Warner, 2000). Janine Benyus has observed that Nature does all its chemistry "in water, at room temperature, without harsh chemicals or high pressures" (Benyus, 1997, p. 97). Nature has multiple ways of doing this. One way is to produce materials (such as human tendons or the shell of an abalone) with characteristics that come from an amazingly fine structure, that is, structures within structures. Another way is through a molecular self-assembly process. And a third way is to use templating proteins into which minerals crystallize, for example, the proteins in the abalone shell that capture calcium carbonate from the surrounding sea water. (Benyus, pp. 96-107). For each nontoxic processes that is mimicked, we can potentially stop using one or more equivalent toxic processes, lessening the toxic load that people and other organisms will be subjected to in the future. See References.

• Detoxifying mercury compounds: According to Susan Miller, quoted at http://www.asknature.org/strategy/1ee340b8e77682d012ce1f61ab65df68, bacteria have evolved ways of detoxifying mercury compounds (Miller, 2007):
"...aerobic bacteria have evolved the ingenious strategy of eliminating mercuric and organomercurial compounds from their environment through reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0."

Mimicking such bacteria can help improve human health over time, by decreasing exposure to toxic mercury compounds. This is especially important for protecting growing children from the damaging effects of mercury on the nervous system. See References.

• Removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air: There are a number of listings at AskNature.org in the Biomimicry Taxonomy under the following:
Break down / Chemically break down / Cleave heavy metals from organic compounds
Break down / Chemically break down / Other organic compounds
One example of the listings describes the ability of certain fungi to remove VOCs such as benzene and methyl ethyl ketone from the air, as the fungi use the VOCs as a carbon and energy source. In situations where VOCs are being used, mimicking this could reduce risks to human health and to the health of other organisms. See References.

Wastes and handling of wastes


Management of solid waste in the Redmond area is handled by Waste Management, a company which has received multiple awards for environmental leadership and sustainability initiatives. The landfill used by King County, other than the city of Seattle, is the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill. Waste Management offers not just trash pickup but also recycling pickup and yard waste (composting) pickup.

There are no Superfund sites in the immediate Redmond area, although there are a number of sites not very far away, for example, the Pacific Car & Foundry site in Renton, Wa.

Biomimicry ideas for challenges related to handling of wastes

Here is a biomimicry idea that could be applied to challenges we face in handling wastes:
• Ending the concept of waste by mimicking ecosystems: This is a field related to biomimicry that has been studied intensively by people such as Paul Hawken, William McDonough, Michael Braungart, and Gunter Pauli. They have helped raise awareness in the business world of the tremendous number of opportunities for businesses to follow "cradle-to-cradle" design-for-recycling practices (McDonough and Braungart, 2002) and to think creatively so that one business uses the unwanted materials from another business, with the goal of having nothing end up as "waste." Here is a quote from Pauli's book, Upsizing (Pauli, 1998, frontispiece):
The starting point: respect nature
The ending point: imitate nature
The only species capable of generating waste is the human species.
No other in nature is capable of producing something no one else wants to have.

Summary


As we seek ways to care for our ecosystem while providing for our needs, we face many design challenges, but they are all interrelated. Asking the fundamental biomimicry question, "How would Nature do it?" can help us see the interrelationships and find truly sound designs, ones that respond to multiple challenges at the same time. For example, with sound land-use planning that allows people to live close to work and shops and schools, people drive less-- which at the same time reduces energy use, helps stabilize climate, reduces air pollution from diesel engines (such as those in school buses), and can improve human health, since exposure to diesel soot carries significant health risks (Keill and Maykut, 2003). Similarly, building rain gardens and swales into our populated areas and using bioremediation can reduce flooding and protect water quality, which in turn can increase salmon populations, which can provide a human food resource and also nourish the trees by bringing nitrogen in from the oceans to fertilize the soil.

Biomimicry can involve highly technical chemical analysis and engineering (for example, the study and mimicking of the chemistry of photosynthesis, Benyus, 1997, pp. 65-92). But it can also involve simple, thoughtful observation, for example, when a permaculture gardener observes the way plants and animals cluster together in natural systems, and then mimics this in the "guilds" that he or she establishes in the garden. Using both aspects of biomimicry together, where possible, can provide synergies that make biomimicry even more beneficial.

Recommendations and Conclusion


Among the many ways we can respond to the challenges we face in the Northwest (and around the world), one way that offers enormous promise is biomimicry. Following biomimicry means not only looking to Nature for possible answers to our design challenges, but looking to Nature to help us reframe those design challenges more elegantly. For example, we might frame a design challenge as 'create a more efficient electric air conditioner.' But if Nature shows that a structure (such as a termite nest) can be cooled simply by an arrangement of air ducts that tap into the natural flow of air, we can reframe the challenge as 'create a living space where temperatures stay within livable limits.' We might still choose to create an efficient air conditioner and install it in the space, but only after looking at alternatives that require zero energy input.

That said, I believe that people who work in the field of biomimicry but who were raised in a reductionist worldview, or a worldview that sees Nature primarily as a resource for humans to use, have an ethical responsibility to look especially carefully at the assumptions that we are working from. For example, if we might be tempted to insert yeast genes into a plant (or vice versa) because the genes code for an amazingly useful protein, it's time to step back and ask, "Is that really how Nature would do it?" We also need to ask "Is this even the way that Nature would define this design challenge?" And most of all, we need to ask, "Does this idea follow in the pattern of life creating the conditions for more life?" If we're not sure, the Precautionary Principle should apply, and we need to look for a different idea offered to us by the amazing organisms around us.

I also believe that when we develop our abilities to enjoy and appreciate Nature, it can help us come back to such questions faithfully and with humility. A deep connection to Nature is one of humankind's gifts, something we evolved from and (if we choose) can return to in a variety of ways, including the thoughtful study and practice of biomimicry.

References


References related to biomimicry and to the Introduction and Summary
(also see "Links to AskNature.org," later in the References section)
Anastas, P.T. and Warner, J.C. (2000). Green chemistry: Theory and practice. New York: Oxford University Press USA.
Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation. Information retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.aquaflowgroup.com/
Benyus, J. (1997). Biomimcry: innovation inspired by Nature. New York: HarperCollins.
Benyus, J., in a Technology, Entertainment, Design (TED) Talk from 2005. Retrieved Sept 6, 2009 from http://www.ted.com/talks/janine_benyus_shares_nature_s_designs.html
Biomimicry Institute. Information retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.biomimicryinstitute.org/
Dyesol (developer of solar technology that partially mimics photosynthesis). Information retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.dyesol.com/index.php?page=HowItWorks
Fungi Perfecti. Information retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.fungi.com/
Garcia-Serna, J., Perez-Barrigon, L., Cocero, M.J. (2007). New trends for design towards sustainability in chemical engineering: Green engineering. Chemical Engineering Journal Sep2007, Vol. 133 Issue 1-3, p7-30.
Hawken, P. (1993). The ecology of commerce: A declaration of sustainability. New York: HarperCollins.
Hölldobbler, B, and Wilson, E.O. (2009). The superorganism: the beauty, elegance, and strangeness of insect societies. New York: W.W. Norton.
Keill, L. and Maykut, N. (2003). Final report: Puget sound air toxics evaluation. Seattle: Puget Sound Clean Air Agency in conjunction with Washington State Department of Ecology.
Luu, T. D. (2009). "Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides: A choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes." International Journal of Phytoremediation, 11(8), 664-691.
Mathews, D. (1998/1990). Cascade-Olympic natural history: A trailside reference. Portland, Oregon: Raven Editions.
McDonough, W. and Braungart, M. (2002). Cradle to cradle: Remaking the way we make things. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
McKibben, B. (1995; reissued in 2007). Hope, human and wild: True stories of living lightly on the earth. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions.
Miller, Susan M. 2007. Cleaving C-Hg bonds: two thiolates are better than one. Nat Chem Biol. 3(9): 537-538.
Pauli, G. (1998). Upsizing: The road to zero emissions. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishers.
Pax Scientific. Information retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.paxscientific.com/tech.html
Sightline Institute. Web site includes description of "Cascadia," plus multiple reports such as the Cascadia Scorecard project. Information retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.sightline.org/ and http://scorecard.sightline.org/
Stamets, P. (2005). Mycelium running: How mushrooms can help save the world. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press.
Suzuki, D. Radio interview recorded by KUOW, retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.kuow.org/program.php?id=17278
Turner, N. J. (2005). The earth's blanket. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
Turner, N. J., & Berkes, F. (2006, Aug). Coming to understanding: Developing conservation through incremental learning in the Pacific Northwest. Human Ecology. 34, 495-513.
Wild Thyme Farm. Information retrieved September 6, 2009 at http://www.wildthymefarm.com/index.html

Links to AskNature.org (by organism or natural element):
All retrieved September 6, 2009
Bacteria: "Enzymes detoxify mercury compounds " http://www.asknature.org/strategy/1ee340b8e77682d012ce1f61ab65df68
Fungus: " VOCs used as carbon and energy source" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/9977c6187dbcb18c8474f5c317ec0682
Kelp, bull: "Spiral-shaped flow is optimal" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/2427168e0c258cdc5863d8bb553eaf9a
Mangrove: "Membranes desalinate water" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/f580efcadd6c8c19dadf3811bdd6222d
Penguin: "Glands remove salt" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/3c8aabce69549d3698c8f771565431f1
Prairie dog: "Burrow shape creates ventilation" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/e27b89ebcdec8c9b5b2cd9ac84b8f8a0
Plants (photosynthesis) "Creating energy from sunlight" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/4a77b8541f02437695521f1c4185c93a
Plants (water transport) "Xylem conduits transport water: plants" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/d7662735f5e44d5c879876f05652d091
Streams: "Hydrological regimes maintain organisms" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/cc6a53b8f915b05f44fcc0cede8eb8b0
Termites, mound-building: "Ventilated nests remove heat and gas" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/8a16bdffd27387cd2a3a995525ea08b3
Trees: "Trees generate pressure: oaks" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/b034160ecb9a195ddd2d607d6f89ae91
Thorny devil lizard "Grooves on spikes of thorny devil lizard provide drinking water by drawing condensed dew to mouth by capillary action" http://www.asknature.org/strategy/3f47ec0d4343c94f82e19e103ac20c34

Links related to sections of paper (in same order as in body of paper)
All retrieved September 6, 2009
Demographics and diversity: links
http://www.infoplease.com/us/census/data/washington/redmond/
http://www.kingcounty.gov/property/permits/codes/growth/CompPlan/history.aspx
http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/53/53033.html
http://www.agingkingcounty.org/docs/AreaPlanDemographics.pdf
Land use: links
http://scorecard.sightline.org/sprawl.html
http://your.kingcounty.gov/ftp/ddes/acrobat/gis/generalized_cplu.pdf
http://your.kingcounty.gov/exec/news/2005/1014green.htm
http://redmondcity.blogspot.com/2008/07/urban-forest-bobcat-recently-displaced.html
Food crops: links
http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/waterandland/agriculture.aspx
http://www.fullcirclefarm.com/about.html
http://rootllc.com/farmstore.html
http://www.south47farm.com/
http://marymoorgarden.org/
http://redmondsaturdaymarket.homestead.com/
http://your.kingcounty.gov/dnrp/library/water-and-land/agriculture/future-of-farming/ten-year-vision.pdf
http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/soils/chemicaluse.asp
http://www.seattlepi.com/specials/brokenpromises/288238_stormwater11.asp
Watershed, water sources, and water conservation: links
http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/watersheds.aspx
http://www.nwd-wc.usace.army.mil/nws/hh/basins/snoh.html
http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/wastewater/WaterConservation.aspx
http://www.cascadewater.org/index.php
http://www.redmond.gov/insidecityhall/publicworks/environment/conservation.asp
Water quality: links
History of protection of the Cedar River Watershed
http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20020401&slug=watershedpo01
http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20020507&slug=powerline07m
City of Redmond links
http://www.redmond.gov/insidecityhall/publicworks/environment/WatershedManagement/RedmondWatersheds.asp
http://www.redmond.gov/insidecityhall/publicworks/environment/groundwaterordinance.asp
http://www.redmond.gov/insidecityhall/publicworks/environment/WatershedManagement/watershed.asp
Energy use: links
http://www.americaspower.org/The-Facts/
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_use/total/pdf/use_wa.pdf
http://scorecard.sightline.org/energy.html
http://www.mrsc.org/subjects/environment/energyconservation.aspx
http://www.kingcounty.gov/operations/policies/executive/utilitiesaeo/put76aeo.aspx
Human health: links
http://scorecard.sightline.org/health.html
http://www.govlink.org/hazwaste/index.cfm
http://www.govlink.org/hazwaste/house/disposal/
http://www.govlink.org/hazwaste/house/alternatives/
Wastes and handling of wastes: links
Landfill information
http://www.metrokc.gov/DNR/Kidsweb/landfill.htm
http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/facilities/landfills.asp
Information about the varied services of Waste Management
http://www.wmnorthwest.com/nkingcounty/index.html
http://www.wm.com/wm/WM_2008_ExecSummary_SRR.pdf
http://www.wm.com/wm/services/bioremediation.asp
Superfund site information
http://cfpub.epa.gov/supercpad/cursites/srchsites.cfm (recommend search:
County, King; State, Washington; NPL Status: Currently on the Final NPL)
Other information about waste reduction, recycling, and composting
http://www.b-sustainable.org/built-environment/amount-of-solid-waste-being-generated-and-disposed-per-sector-and-per-capita
http://www.kingcounty.gov/council/legislation/~/media/Council/documents/Clerk/CodeFiles/13_Title_10.ashx (see p. 29, section 10.14.020)
http://www.cedar-grove.com/about/
http://www.redmond.gov/insidecityhall/publicworks/environment/recycling.asp

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