Pesticides

A Small Dose of Pesticides


  • An Introduction into the Health Effects of Pesticides

 

Pesticides Dossier


Insecticides

  • Name: Insecticides
  • Use: kill insects
  • Source: synthetic chemistry, plants
  • Recommended daily intake: none (not essential)
  • Absorption: intestine, respiratory system (lungs), skin
  • Sensitive individuals: fetus, children, and elderly
  • Toxicity/symptoms: nervous system, range of problems depending on chemical
  • Regulatory facts: RfDs exist for many insecticides. Regulated by EPA.
  • General facts: billions of pounds used every year in agriculture, golf courses, around the home, and by commercial real estate
  • Environmental: pesticides are used globally; some are very persistent in the environment
  • Recommendations: minimize use, avoid exposure by children, and consider alternatives including Integrated Pest Management practices

Herbicides

  • Name: Herbicides
  • Use: kill or damage plants
  • Source: synthetic chemistry, manufactured by industry
  • Recommended daily intake: none (not essential)
  • Absorption: intestine, respiratory system (lungs), skin
  • Sensitive individuals: fetus, children, and elderly
  • Toxicity/symptoms: varies
  • Regulatory facts: References Doses (RfDs) exist for some herbicides. Regulated by the EPA.
  • General facts: long history of use; often used in combination with genetically modified plants
  • Environmental: widespread global use and contamination
  • Recommendations: minimize use, avoid exposure by children, and consider alternatives including Integrated Pest Management practices

 

Pesticides Chapter


PowerPoint Presentation


More Information and References


European, Asian, and International Agencies


  • World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). WHOPES is an "international programme which promotes and coordinates the testing and evaluation of new pesticides proposed for public health use."

 

North American Agencies

  • Health Canada. Pesticide Information. Health Canada provides a range of information on pesticides in English or French.
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Office of Pesticides Programs (OPP). OPP's mission is "to protect public health and the environment from the risks posed by pesticides and to promote safer means of pest control."

 

Non-Government Organizations


  • Pesticide Action Network International (PANI). "PANI is a network of over 600 participating nongovernmental organizations, institutions and individuals in over 60 countries working to replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecologically sound alternatives." (English, French, Spanish)
  • Pesticide Action Network North America (PAN). PAN Pesticide Database. "The PAN Pesticide Database brings together a diverse array of information on pesticides from many different sources, providing human toxicity (chronic and acute), ecotoxicity, and regulatory information for about 6,400 pesticide active ingredients and their transformation products, as well as adjuvants and solvents used in pesticide products."
  • National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC). Call 1-800-858-7378. NPIC is based at Oregon State University and is cooperatively sponsored by the University and the EPA. NPIC serves as a source of objective, science-based pesticide information on a wide range of pesticide-related topics, such as recognition and management of pesticide poisonings, safety information, health and environmental effects, referrals for investigation of pesticide incidents and emergency treatment for both humans and animals, and cleanup and disposal procedures.
  • Beyond Pesticides. "Beyond Pesticides is a national network committed to pesticide safety and the adoption of alternative pest management strategies which reduce or eliminate a dependency on toxic chemicals."
  • EXTOXNET InfoBase. EXTOXNET provides a variety of information about pesticides, including the Pesticide Information Profiles (PIPs) for specific information on pesticides and the Toxicology Information Briefs (TIBs) contain a discussion of certain concepts in toxicology and environmental chemistry.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)


  • University of California. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM). The UC IPM program "develops and promotes the use of integrated, ecologically sound pest management programs in California to serve agriculture, urban and community, and natural resources audiences."
  • IPM Institute of North America, Inc. "An independent nonprofit organization formed in 1998 to foster recognition and rewards in the marketplace for goods and service providers who practice Integrated Pest Management, or IPM."

 

References


  • Dean, S. R., and R. W. Meola. "Effect of diet composition on weight gain, sperm transfer, and insemination in the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae)". J Med Entomol, 39, 2 (2002): 370-375.
  • Dryden, M. W., and S.M. Gaafar. "Blood consumption by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae)". J Med Entomol, 28, 3 (1991): 394-400.

 

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