A Small Dose of Metals

  • An Introduction into the Health Effects of Metals


Metals Dossier

Look closely, some metals are essential and some are very toxic. Find out about the following:

Nutritionally Important Metals
Chromium (Cr)
Copper (Cu)
Iron (Fe)
Magnesium (Mg)
Manganese (Mn)
Selenium (Se)
Zinc (Zn)

Toxicologically Important Metals
Aluminum (Al)
Arsenic (As) (can exist in different forms)
Beryllium (Be) (Chronic Beryllium Disease)
Cadmium (Cd)
Cobalt (Co)
Lead (Pb)
Mercury Inorganic (Hg)
Mercury - Organic (Hg-CH3)
Nickel (Ni)
Tin (Sn)

Medically Important Metals
Bismuth (Bi)
Fluorine (F)
Gallium (Ga)
Gold (Au)
Lithium (Li)
Platinum (Pt)

Chelating agents

Metals Chapter

PowerPoint Presentation

More Information and References

European, Asian, and International Agencies

  • World Health Organization (WHO). Nutrition. WHO information on nutrition.


North American Agencies

  • Health Canada. Food and Nutrition. Health Canada provides information on nutritional issues.


Non-government Organizations





  • Liu, J., Goyer, R.A. and M. P. Waalkes. "Toxic Effects of Metals" in Casarett & Doull's Toxicology 7th edition. Edited by Curtis D. Klaassen, 931-980. New York: McGraw Hill, 2008.
  • Klaassen, Curtis D. Heavy Metals and Heavy-Metal Antagonists. Chapter in Hardman, J.G., et al. (eds)
  • Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
  • National Academy of Sciences. Measuring lead exposure in infants, children, and other sensitive populations. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993.
  • Rogan, W. J., et al. "The Effect of Chelation Therapy with Succimer on Neuropsychological Development in Children Exposed to Lead". N Engl J Med, 344 (2001): 1421-1426.


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